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M Feldman
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W Ruan
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I Tappin
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R Wieczorek
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DL Kleinberg
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Both GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) synergize with estrogen to induce normal mammary gland development. However, the nature of this synergy has not been explored. To gain insight into the mechanism of these interactions we have examined the effects of these substances on the estrogen receptor (ER). ER levels in the mammary gland cytosols from hypophysectomized and oophorectomized rats, were measured using two assay systems: a dextran-coated charcoal procedure to measure binding to radiolabeled steroid, and an immunologic assay employing a specific antibody to the receptor. In both assays, levels of ER were at or near baseline detection (approximately 1-2 ng/mg protein). Treating animals with either bovine or human GH significantly increased ER activity (P<0.001), whereas prolactin (PRL) and/or estradiol treatment had no effect. That this increase was at the level of transcription was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction. Following a single injection of GH (50 microgram), a substantial increase in ER mRNA was observed by 10 h, with levels returning to baseline within 24 h; a concomitant increase in ER itself was also observed at the 10 h time point. The effect of GH appeared to occur mainly in the mammary stroma, because there were no differences in GH stimulation of ER between gland-free and gland containing mammary fat pads. Furthermore, analysis of mammary gland ER by immunocytochemistry demonstrated that while ER was present in the epithelial cells of non-treated animals, only GH treated animals had ER clearly visible in both glandular and fat cells of the tissue. In contrast, treating animals with des(1-3)-IGF-I did not result in reproducible increases in ER, nor in the staining of fat cell nuclei for ER. These data demonstrate a specific GH effect on the ER in the mammary fat cell.

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Lucy M Hinder
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Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri Department of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, AATBSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA

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Lisa L McLean
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Subramaniam Pennathur Department of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, AATBSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA

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Eva L Feldman
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Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes and is characterized by distal-to-proximal loss of peripheral nerve axons. The idea of tissue-specific pathological alterations in energy metabolism in diabetic complications-prone tissues is emerging. Altered nerve metabolism in type 1 diabetes models is observed; however, therapeutic strategies based on these models offer limited efficacy to type 2 diabetic patients with DN. Therefore, understanding how peripheral nerves metabolically adapt to the unique type 2 diabetic environment is critical to develop disease-modifying treatments. In the current study, we utilized targeted liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to characterize the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolomes in sural nerve, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from male type 2 diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb; db/db) and controls (db/+). We report depletion of glycolytic intermediates in diabetic sural nerve and sciatic nerve (glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (sural nerve only), 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and lactate), with no significant changes in DRG. Citrate and isocitrate TCA cycle intermediates were decreased in sural nerve, sciatic nerve, and DRG from diabetic mice. Utilizing LC/electrospray ionization/MS/MS and HPLC methods, we also observed increased protein and lipid oxidation (nitrotyrosine; hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids) in db/db tissue, with a proximal-to-distal increase in oxidative stress, with associated decreased aconitase enzyme activity. We propose a preliminary model, whereby the greater change in metabolomic profile, increase in oxidative stress, and decrease in TCA cycle enzyme activity may cause distal peripheral nerves to rely on truncated TCA cycle metabolism in the type 2 diabetes environment.

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