The aim of this work was to analyse the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (Ptgs2) in endotoxin-induced decrease in Igf1 and Igf binding protein-3 (Igfbp3). For this purpose, male Wistar rats were injected with lipolysaccharide (LPS) and/or the Ptgs2 inhibitor meloxicam. LPS induced a significant decrease (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of Igf1 and Igfbp3 and their mRNAs in the liver. Meloxicam administration prevented the inhibitory effect of LPS injection on serum Igf1 and its liver mRNA. By contrast, meloxicam administration was unable to modify the inhibitory effect of LPS on Igfbp3. LPS injection also induced a decrease in GH receptor (Ghr) mRNA in the liver, and meloxicam attenuated this effect. In order to elucidate a direct action of the Ptgs2 inhibitor on the liver cells, the effect of LPS and/or meloxicam was studied in primary cultures of hepatocytes with non-parenchymal cells. LPS decreased Igf1 and Ghr but not Igfbp3 gene expression in liver cells in culture. Meloxicam administration attenuated the inhibitory effect of LPS on Igf1 mRNA, whereas it did not modify the decrease in Ghr mRNA after LPS. The effect of meloxicam on the LPS response does not seem to be mediated by changes in nitric oxide or tumour necrosis factor (Tnf) production, since meloxicam did not modify the stimulatory effect of LPS on nitric oxide or Tnfα gene expression both in vivo and in vitro. All these data suggest that LPS-induced Ptgs2 activation decreases Igf1 gene expression in liver cells.
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A I Martín, M López-Menduiña, E Castillero, M Granado, M A Villanúa, and A López-Calderón
A I Martín, E Castillero, M Granado, M López-Menduiña, M A Villanúa, and A López-Calderón
Adjuvant-induced arthritis is a model of rheumatoid arthritis that induces cachexia. In other cachectic situations, there is an increase in lipolysis resulting in a loss of adipose tissue mass. The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of chronic arthritis, induced by adjuvant injection, on white adipose tissue (WAT). For this purpose, rats were killed 10 days after adjuvant injection, when the first external symptoms appeared, on days 15 and 22 when the external signs of the illness reach their severest level. As arthritis decreases food intake, a pair-fed group was also included. Serum concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, glycerol and nitrites, as well as gene expression of leptin, adiponectin, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), tumour necrosis factor α and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) were determined. Arthritis decreased food intake between days 5 and 16, but not during the last 5 days of the experiment. There was a marked decrease in relative adipose tissue weight and in serum leptin and adiponectin as well as in their gene expression in WAT in arthritic rats. Arthritis decreased the gene expression of FAS in the WAT. However, none of these effects was found in pair-fed rats. Arthritis did not increase lipolysis, since arthritic rats have lower serum concentrations of glycerol, HSL mRNA in WAT, as well as liver ZAG mRNA than the pair-fed or control rats. These data suggest that in chronic arthritis the decrease in white adipose mass is secondary to a reduced adipose lipogenesis, and this effect is not mainly due to the decrease in food intake.
M Granado, A I Martín, T Priego, M A Villanúa, and A López-Calderón
Gram-negative bacterial infection or treatment of animals with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a catabolic state with proteolysis, liver injury and an inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the role of Kupffer cells in LPS-induced inhibition of the IGF-I/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) system. Adult male Wistar rats were either pretreated with the Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (10 mg/kg, i.v., 24 h prior to LPS exposure) or saline vehicle. Rats received two i.p. injections of 1 mg/kg LPS (at 17:30 and 08:30 h the following day) and were killed 4 h after the second injection. LPS administration induced a significant decrease in body weight and in serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (P < 0.01), as well as in their gene expression in the liver. LPS-injected rats had increased serum concentrations of ACTH, corticosterone (P < 0.05), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrites (P < 0.01). Pretreatment of the animals with gadolinium chloride blocked the inhibitory effect of LPS on body weight, and on serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and nitrites, as well as growth hormone receptor (GHR), IGF-I and IGFBP-3 gene expression in the liver. In contrast, gadolinium chloride administration did not modify the stimulatory effect of LPS on serum concentrations of ACTH, corticosterone and TNF-α. These results suggest that Kupffer cells are important mediators in the inhibitory effect of LPS on GHR, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 gene expression in the liver, leading to a decrease in serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3.
M Granado, A I Martín, T Priego, A López-Calderón, and M A Villanúa
Chronic inflammation is associated with a decrease in body weight and cachexia, which is characterized by anorexia and skeletal muscle wasting. The expression of atrogens muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) are increased in muscle atrophy and it is known that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) regulates skeletal muscle loss through TNF receptor p55 (TNFRI). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of polyethylene glycol linked to soluble TNFRI (PEG-sTNFRI) on gene expression of the atrogens MuRF-1 and MAFbx in skeletal muscle of arthritic rats. Rats were injected with Freund’s adjuvant and, 15 days later, arthritic and control rats were injected daily with PEG-sTNFRI (1 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 8 days. Arthritis decreased body weight gain, the weight of skeletal muscle and adipose mass. PEG-sTNFRI administration increased body weight gain and adipose mass of arthritic rats; however, it did not modify the skeletal muscle weight. The gene expression of TNF-α, MuRF1 and MAFbx, IGF-I and IGFBP-5 were increased in the skeletal muscle of arthritic rats, and the administration of PEG-sTNFRI did not modify these parameters. These data suggest that the anti-TNF agent PEG-sTNFRI did not prevent the increase in E3 ubiquitin-ligating enzymes, MuRF1 and MAFbx, gene expression in the skeletal muscle of arthritic rats.
JA Tresguerres, C Ariznavarreta, B Granados, JA Costoya, A Perez-Romero, F Salame, and M Hermanussen
Twelve female rats weighing approximately 150 g received in the submaxillary gland a pellet capable of releasing 3.5 microg GHRH/h for 60 days. Another eight sex- and weight-matched animals received placebo pellets in the same place. After two months the animals were killed, heart blood was collected and pituitary and submaxillary glands were carefully dissected. Pituitary GH content in both placebo- and GHRH-treated animals showed similar values, but plasma GH and IGF-I levels were significantly lower in the animals carrying GHRH pellets (P<0.03); these animals also had a significantly higher GH content in the submaxillary gland (19.2+/-8 ng/mg protein) compared with the placebo-treated group (1.1+/-0.3 ng/mg protein). GH mRNA was present only in the submaxillary gland of GHRH-treated rats as determined by PCR-Southern blot and by in situ hybridization methods. It is concluded that high local GHRH levels are capable of inducing transdifferentiation in submaxillary gland cells to synthesize GH.
Teresa Priego, Miriam Granado, Estibaliz Castillero, Ana Isabel Martín, M Ángeles Villanúa, and Asunción López-Calderón
We tested whether endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) inhibits IGF-I gene expression in hepatocytes and the possible role of Kupffer cells and nitric oxide (NO) in this effect. LPS decreased IGF-I mRNA in hepatocyte cultures and increased the nitrite + nitrate levels in the culture medium. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between the IGF-I mRNA and the nitrite+nitrate levels. When hepatocytes were cocultured with Kupffer cells, the inhibitory effect of LPS on IGF-I mRNA was higher than in hepatocyte cultures, but the stimulatory effect on nitrite+nitrate was similar in both conditions. The exogenous NO donated by S-nitroso-n-acetyl-d,l-penicillamide also decreased the IGF-I gene expression in hepatocyte cultures. In addition, two specific inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitors, l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (l-NIL) and aminoguanidine, prevented the effect of LPS on nitrite+nitrate levels and on IGF-I gene expression in hepatocyte cultures. These data indicate that iNOS-derived NO may cause downregulation of IGF-I gene expression in hepatocytes. However, in cocultures, the iNOS inhibitor l-NIL prevented the effect of LPS on nitrite+nitrate levels, but only attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in IGF-I gene expression. We conclude that in hepatocytes, LPS-induced decrease in IGF-I is mainly due to induction of iNOS, whereas in the presence of Kupffer cells LPS inhibits IGF-I through NO release and through other inhibitory pathways.
T Priego, M Granado, I Ibanez de Caceres, AI Martin, MA Villanua, and A Lopez-Calderon
While it is well known that sepsis inhibits serum IGF-I and its gene expression in the liver, the effect on pituitary GH and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is poorly understood. The GH-IGF-I-IGFBP-3 response to different doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration has been investigated in adult male rats. Two experiments were performed, administration of low doses of LPS (5, 10, 50 and 100 microg/kg) and high doses of LPS (100, 250, 500 and 1000 microg/kg). Rats received two i.p. injections of LPS (at 1730 h and 0830 h the following day) and were killed 4 h after the second injection. LPS administration induced a biphasic response in serum concentrations of GH, with an increase at the 10 microg/kg dose, followed by a decrease at higher doses (100 microg/kg on up). Pituitary GH mRNA was also increased by the administration of 10 and 50 microg/kg LPS, whereas at higher doses LPS did not modify pituitary GH mRNA. We also analyzed the GH response to LPS in primary pituitary cell cultures. When exposed to LPS, in the culture medium, there was an increase in GH release at the concentration of 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, whereas more concentrated LPS did not modify GH release. Serum concentrations of IGF-I declined in a dose-dependent fashion after LPS administration in the rats injected with 10 microg/kg LPS on up. This decrease is secondary to modifications in its synthesis in the liver, since endotoxin injection decreased both IGF-I and its mRNA in the liver. The liver GH receptor mRNA was also decreased by LPS administration, but only in the animals injected with high LPS doses. There was a decrease in both the IGFBP-3 serum levels and its gene expression in the liver with all LPS doses studied. These data suggest a biphasic LPS effect on pituitary GH, a stimulatory effect at low doses and an inhibitory effect at higher doses, whereas it has a clear inhibitory effect on IGF-I and IGFBP-3 synthesis in the liver. The decrease in liver IGFBP-3 mRNA and in serum concentrations of IGFBP-3 in the rats injected with LPS may contribute to the decrease in serum concentrations of IGF-I.