When isolated rat pancreatic islets are treated with 16.7 mM glucose, a time-dependent potentiation (TDP) of insulin release occurs that can be detected by subsequent treatment with 50 mM KCl. It has been thought that TDP by glucose is a Ca2+-dependent phenomenon and only occurs when exposure to glucose is carried out in the presence of Ca2+. In contrast to this, we now demonstrate TDP under stringent Ca2+-free conditions (Ca2+-free buffer containing 1 mM EGTA). In fact, under these Ca2+-free conditions glucose caused an even stronger TDP than in the presence of Ca2+. TDP induced by glucose in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was unaffected by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC). However, cerulenin or tunicamycin, two inhibitors of protein acylation, eradicated TDP without affecting glucose metabolism. The TDP by glucose was not associated with an increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) during subsequent treatment with high K+. Exposure of islets to forskolin under Ca(2+)-free conditions did not cause TDP despite a large increase in the cellular cAMP levels. In conclusion, glucose alone induces TDP under stringent Ca2+-free conditions when [Ca2+]i was significantly lowered. Protein acylation is implicated in the underlying mechanism of TDP.
S Yamada, M Komatsu, T Aizawa, Y Sato, H Yajima, T Yada, S Hashiguchi, K Yamauchi and K Hashizume
T Aizawa, T Kaneko, H Yajima, S Yamada, Y Sato, Y Kanda, S Kanda, M Noda, T Kadowaki, M Nagai, K Yamauchi, M Komatsu and K Hashizume
Oscillation of insulin release by the pancreatic islets was evaluated under stringent Ca(2+)-free conditions for the first time. Isolated single rat islets were exposed to 16.7 mM glucose in the presence of 1.9 mM Ca(2+), or under the stringent Ca(2+)-free conditions (Ca(2+) omission with 1 mM EGTA, 6 microM forskolin and 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Fifteen minutes after the initiation of glucose stimulation, effluent was collected at a 6-s interval, insulin was determined in duplicate by a highly sensitive insulin radioimmunoassay, and oscillation and pulsatility of release statistically analyzed. Significant oscillation of insulin release was observed in all islets irrespective of presence and absence of Ca(2+). Significant pulsatility of release was detected in 7 of 11 islets in the presence of Ca(2+) and three of six isl! ets in the absence of Ca(2+). In conclusion, high glucose elicits oscillatory insulin release both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+).