There is growing evidence that prenatal adversities could be implicated in foetal programming of adult chronic diseases. Since maternal stress is known to disturb the foetal glucocorticoid environment, we examined the consequences of prenatal stress on foetal growth, on glucose-insulin metabolism and on feeding behaviour in the aged male rat. In foetuses at term, maternal stress reduced body, adrenal and pancreas weight as well as plasma corticosterone and glucose levels. In aged male rats (24 months of age), prenatal stress induced hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance and decreased basal leptin levels. Moreover, after a fasting period, they showed an increased food intake. These data suggest that maternal stress induces a long-lasting disturbance in feeding behaviour and dysfunctions related to type 2 diabetes mellitus. This programming could be linked to the early restricted foetal growth and to the adverse glucocorticoid environment in utero.
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J Lesage, F Del-Favero, M Leonhardt, H Louvart, S Maccari, D Vieau, and M Darnaudery
U Ritzel, U Leonhardt, M Ottleben, A Ruhmann, K Eckart, J Spiess, and G Ramadori
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is the most potent endogenous insulin-stimulating hormone. In the present study the plasma stability and biological activity of a GLP-1 analog, [Ser]GLP-1(7-36)amide, in which the second N-terminal amino acid alanine was replaced by serine, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of GLP-1 with human or rat plasma resulted in degradation of native GLP-1(7-36)amide to GLP-1(9-36)amide, while [Ser]GLP-1(7-36)amide was not significantly degraded by plasma enzymes. Using glucose-responsive HIT-T15 cells, [Ser]GLP-1(7-36)amide showed strong insulinotropic activity, which was inhibited by the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-4(9-39)amide. Simultaneous i.v. injection of [Ser]GLP-1(7-36)amide and glucose in rats induced a twofold higher increase in plasma insulin levels than unmodified GLP-1(7-36)amide with glucose and a fivefold higher increase than glucose alone. [Ser]GLP-1(7-36)amide induced a 1.5-fold higher increase in plasma insulin than GLP-1(7-36)amide when given 1 h before i.v. application of glucose. The insulinotropic effect of [Ser]GLP-1(7-36)amide was suppressed by i.v. application of exendin-4(9-39)amide. The present data demonstrate that replacement of the second N-terminal amino acid alanine by serine improves the plasma stability of GLP-1(7-36)amide. The insulinotropic action in vitro and in vivo was not impaired significantly by this modification.
J Lesage, D Hahn, M Leonhardt, B Blondeau, B Breant, and JP Dupouy
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a frequently occurring and serious complication of pregnancy. Infants exposed to IUGR are at risk for numerous perinatal morbidities, including hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, as well as increased risk of later physical and/or mental impairments, cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Fetal growth restriction most often results from uteroplacental dysfunction during the later stage of pregnancy. As glucose, which is the most abundant nutrient crossing the placenta, fulfills a large portion of the fetal energy requirements during gestational development, and since impaired placental glucose transport is thought to result in growth restriction, we investigated the effects of maternal 50% food restriction (FR50) during the last week of gestation on rat placental expression of glucose transporters, GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4, and on plasma glucose content in both maternal and fetal compartments. Moreover, as maternal FR50 induces fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids and since these hormones are potent regulators of placental glucose transporter expression, we investigated whether putative alterations in placental GLUT expression correlate with changes in maternal and/or fetal corticosterone levels. At term (day 21 of pregnancy), plasma glucose content was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in mothers subjected to FR50, but was not affected in fetuses. Food restriction reduced maternal body weight (P<0.001) but did not affect placental weight. Plasma corticosterone concentration, at term, was increased (P<0.05) in FR50 mothers. Fetuses from FR50 mothers showed reduced body weight (P<0.001) but higher plasma corticosterone levels (P<0.05). Adrenalectomy (ADX) followed by corticosterone supplementation of the mother prevented the FR50-induced rise in maternal plasma corticosterone at term. Food restriction performed on either sham-ADX or ADX mothers induced a similar reduction in the body weight of the pups at term (P<0.01). Moreover, plasma corticosterone levels were increased in pups from sham-ADX FR50 mothers (P<0.01) and in pups from ADX control mothers (P<0.01). Western blot analysis of placental GLUT proteins showed that maternal FR50 decreased placental GLUT3 protein levels in all experimental groups at term (P<0.05 and P<0.01), but did not affect either GLUT1 or GLUT4 protein levels. Northern blot analysis of placental GLUT expression showed that both GLUT1 and GLUT3 mRNA were not affected by the maternal feeding regimen or surgery. We concluded that prolonged maternal malnutrition during late gestation decreases maternal plasma glucose content and placental GLUT3 glucose transporter expression, but does not obviously affect fetal plasma glucose concentration. Moreover, the present results are not compatible with a role of maternal corticosterone in the development of growth-restricted rat fetuses.
J. Domin, J. H. Steel, N. Adolphus, J. M. Burrin, U. Leonhardt, J. M. Polak, and S. R. Bloom
In this study we have examined the effects of TRH, thyroid hormones and dopamine on the rat anterior pituitary content of neuromedin U-like immunoreactivity. Oral administration of TRH (20 mg/100 g per day) to euthyroid animals evoked a fivefold increase in peptide content after 12 days of treatment. This effect was found to be dependent upon circulating levels of thyroid hormone, since administration of TRH to thyroidectomized animals failed to show a similar effect without simultaneous treatment with tri-iodothyronine. The possibility that the TRH-induced increase in anterior lobe neuromedin U content reflected alterations in prolactin secretion or synthetic rate was also examined. Treatment of euthyroid animals with a dopamine agonist and antagonist was, however, without effect. These results demonstrate a unique relationship between TRH and thyroid hormone levels in increasing the anterior lobe content of neuromedin U immunoreactivity.
Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 122, 471–476