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M. Mori and M. Yamada

ABSTRACT

The negative-feedback action of thyroid hormones on TRH in the hypothalamic median eminence was examined. Thyroidectomy caused a progressive decrease in TRH content of the median eminence, but not of the whole hypothalamus. In contrast, it did not affect the LHRH content of the median eminence. Administration of thyroid hormone prevented the decrease in TRH content of the median eminence after thyroidectomy. Destruction of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) led to a significant reduction in TRH content of the median eminence in normal and thyroidectomized rats. These data provide evidence that thyroid hormones regulate directly the amount of median eminence TRH which is derived from the hypothalamic PVN in the rat.

J. Endocr. (1987) 114, 443–448

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T. Iriuchijima and M. Mori

ABSTRACT

To clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the TRH-induced refractory state of the anterior pituitary, we evaluated rat pituitary inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in the presence of staurosporine. TRH caused a time- and dose-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in rat anterior pituitary slices. Pretreatment with 550 nmol TRH/l completely abolished the subsequent accumulation of inositol phosphates in response to 140 nmol TRH/l. TRH-stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates did not occur after pretreatment with 0·2 μmol phorbol ester/l. Refractoriness of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis which was produced by pretreatment with TRH and phorbol ester was inhibited by staurosporine. The present data support the hypothesis that protein kinase C plays a profound role in TRH induction of the refractory state of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in the anterior pituitary.

Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 124, 75–79

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M. Mori, I. Kobayashi and S. Kobayashi

ABSTRACT

We have investigated the effect of TRH on the accumulation of glycosylated TSH in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Hemipituitaries from adult male rats were incubated in medium containing [3H]glucosamine in the presence of TRH. [3H]Glucosamine-labelled TSH in media and pituitaries was measured by immunoprecipitation and characterized by isoelectric focusing after affinity chromatography. Incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into immunoprecipitable TSH in the media and pituitaries increased progressively with the period of incubation. Although the release of [3H]glucosamine-labelled and unlabelled TSH into media was stimulated by the addition of TRH in a time- and dose-dependent manner, TRH administration did not alter the amounts of labelled or unlabelled TSH in the anterior pituitary lobes. The anterior pituitaries were found, by isoelectric focusing analysis, to be composed of four major component peaks of [3H]glucosamine-labelled TSH. Administration of TRH caused profound changes in the radioactivity of these components and evoked new radioactive peaks, resulting in the appearance of six components in total. The present data provide evidence that TRH significantly changes the heterogeneity of glycosylated TSH in the anterior pituitary without altering the amount of the glycosylated form.

J. Endocr. (1986) 109, 227–231

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M. MAEYAMA, N. MORI, I. MIYAKAWA and S. HIGASHI

University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 and Monash University, Department of Medicine, Prince Henry's Hospital, St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia

(Received 25 February 1974)

The present studies were made on the function of the placenta and foetal adrenals in an oophorectomized and adrenalectomized woman during the second trimester of pregnancy. Bilateral oophorectomy at week 9 of pregnancy and bilateral adrenalectomy at week 14 of pregnancy were carried out for multiple breast cancer metastases. Unfortunately, at the time, the possibility of pregnancy was not excluded. Replacement treatment was started and continued with cortisol (20 mg/day).

Oestrone, oestradiol and oestriol were measured by the method of Brown (1955) and colorimetrie estimation and correction for loss were done as previously described (Maeyama, Nakagawa, Tuchida & Matuoka, 1969). Pregnanediol was measured by g.l.c. Urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) were measured by a modification of the method of Silber &

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K Ohtani, H Shimizu, Y Tanaka, N Sato and M Mori

Abstract

Pioglitazone hydrochloride (AD-4833), one of the thiazolidinedione analogs, is a new anti-diabetic agent which improves peripheral insulin resistance in diabetic patients. We determined the direct effect of AD-4833 on insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells. The effects of AD-4833 (10−7 m to 10−5 m) on insulin secretion were examined in 3 and 7 mm glucose-containing F-12 K media. The addition of 10−5 m AD-4833 significantly increased insulin secretion in both media, but its stimulatory effect was more potent in the medium containing 7 mm glucose. The addition of 10−5 m AD-4833 caused an immediate, significant increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Nifedipine at all concentrations from 10 to 1000 nm significantly attenuated insulin secretion by 10−5 m AD-4833. In addition, 10−5 m AD-4833 failed to stimulate insulin secretion in the Ca2+-free Kreb's-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. These data indicated that AD-4833 stimulates in vitro insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells, perhaps by inducing Ca2+ influx.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 150, 107–111

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H Shimizu, K Ohtani, Y Kato and M Mori

Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the cytokines released from inflammatory cells, stimulates insulin secretion in a physiological concentration (1-100 pg/ml), but the exact mechanism is still unknown. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism of IL-6-induced stimulation of insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells. The effects of the addition of nifedipine on the IL-6 (100 pg/ml)-induced stimulation of insulin secretion were investigated. We also examined the possibility that IL-6 (1-100 pg/ml) may stimulate insulin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. The addition of 100 and 1000 nM nifedipine significantly attenuated the stimulatory effects of 100 pg/ml IL-6 on insulin secretion. The addition of 1-100 pg/ml IL-6 dose-dependently increased preproinsulin mRNA expression relative to beta-actin mRNA. IL-6 increased insulin gene promoter activity of fragments A (-2188 to +337 bp) and B (-1782 to +270 bp) but not fragments C (-1275 to +270 bp), D (-1138 to +270 bp), E (-880 to +236 bp) or F (-356 to +252 bp). The addition of 10 nM nifedipine completely abolished the stimulatory effect of 10-100 pg/ml IL-6 on relative preproinsulin mRNA expression. These data raised the possibility that IL-6 increased preproinsulin mRNA expression via the stimulation of Ca(2+) influx which enhances insulin gene expression.

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M. Mori, M. Murakami, T. Iriuchijima, H. Ishihara, I. Kobayashi, S. Kobayashi and K. Wakabayashi

ABSTRACT

An influence of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) on TSH heterogeneity in close association with de-novo biosynthesis was studied in rat anterior pituitary glands. Hemipituitary glands from adult male rats were incubated in Krebs–Henseleit–glucose media containing [3H]glucosamine and [14C]alanine for 3 and 6 h in the presence or absence of 10 ng TRH per ml. Fractions of TSH in the pituitary extracts were obtained using affinity chromatography coupled with an anti-rat TSH globulin. These TSH fractions were analysed by isoelectric focusing. The control pituitary glands were composed of four component peaks (isoelectric point (pI) 8·7, 7·8, 5·3 and 2·5) of [3H]glucosamine and [14C]alanine incorporated into TSH, and the amounts of radioactivity of these components were increased with the incubation time. Of these peaks, radioactive components of pI 8·7 and 7·8 coincided with the non-radioactive TSH components measured by radioimmunoassay. Addition of TRH increased incorporation of [14C]alanine into TSH in each of the components to a greater extent than that of [3H]glucosamine. In addition, new components with pI 7·2, 6·5 and 6·2, each component corresponding to each unlabelled TSH component, were demonstrated in the presence of TRH. Because addition of TRH did not change the amounts of [14C]alanine-labelled TSH in the media, the newly formed components were assumed to be connected with protein synthesis occurring in the anterior pituitary gland, which may be specific substances in response to TRH administration. These results indicate that TRH principally elicits an increase in protein synthesis in TSH at the anterior pituitary level, resulting in an alteration of TSH heterogeneity.

J. Endocr. (1984) 103, 165–171

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A Takenaka, M Mori, S Yamada, J Ohgane, S-I Takahashi and T Noguchi

Abstract

The plasma concentration and liver mRNA content of IGF-I are regulated by the quantity and quality of dietary proteins. To determine whether the synthesis of IGF-binding proteins (BPs) is also affected by protein nutrition, we assessed plasma concentration, tissue mRNA content and liver transcription rate of each BP after rats were fed either a 12% casein or a protein-free diet for 1 week. Protein deprivation reduced the plasma concentration of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4 and increased that of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. The mRNA content in tissues and liver transcription rates of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4 did not change in response to protein deprivation although their plasma concentrations decreased. The increased plasma IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 concentrations were explained by the increased mRNA content and transcription rate of their genes in the liver. Although IGFBP-1 mRNA was increased by protein deprivation not only in liver but also in kidney, IGFBP-2 mRNA was increased only in liver and did not increase in any other tissue examined. In addition, the liver mRNA content of the acid-labile subunit, which can form a ternary complex with IGFs and IGFBP-3, was not affected by protein deprivation. These results show that tissue-specific synthesis of each BP is regulated in a distinct way in response to protein deprivation.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 150, 33–41

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H Shimizu, Y Shimomura, Y Nakanishi, T Futawatari, K Ohtani, N Sato and M Mori

Abstract

The decrease in estrogen in menopausal women increases body fat. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the involvement of estrogen in leptin production in vivo. In the first study, expression of ob gene mRNA in white adipose tissue was measured at 2 and 8 weeks after ovariectomy in rats. In the second, serum leptin concentration was measured in total body fat of 87 weight-matched human subjects (29 men, 29 premenopausal and 29 postmenopausal women). In the third, changes in serum leptin concentration with the menstrual cycle were determined, ob gene expression decreased in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats 8 weeks after the operation, while ovariectomy increased ob gene expression in mesenteric white adipose tissue. Serum leptin concentration was decreased by ovariectomy. Estradiol supplement reversed the effect of ovariectomy on ob gene expression and circulating leptin levels. In humans, serum leptin concentration was higher in premenopausal women than in men, and in postmenopausal women it was lower than in premenopausal women, but still higher than in men. In 13 premenopausal women, serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The present studies strongly indicate that estrogen regulates leptin production in rats and human subjects in vivo. Regional variation in the regulation of ob gene expression by estrogen was found.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 154, 285–292

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K Ichikawa, T Miyamoto, T Kakizawa, S Suzuki, A Kaneko, J Mori, M Hara, M Kumagai, T Takeda and K Hashizume

The thyromimetic compound SK&F L-94901 shows more potent thyromimetic activity in the liver than in the pituitary gland or heart when administered to rats. The mechanisms of liver-selectivity of SK&F L-94901 were examined using cultured rat hepatoma cells (dRLH-84) and rat pituitary tumor cells (GH3), both of which showed saturable cellular uptake of tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). When isolated nuclei with partial disruption of the outer nuclear membrane were used, SK L-94901 competed for [(125)I]T(3) binding to nuclear receptors almost equally in dRLH-84 and GH3 cells. SK L-94901 also did not discriminate thyroid hormone receptors (TR) alpha1 and beta1 in terms of binding affinity and activation of the thyroid hormone responsive element. In intact cells, however, SK L-94901 was a more potent inhibitor of nuclear [(125)I]T(3) binding in dRLH-84 cells than in GH3 cells at an early phase of the nuclear uptake process and after binding equilibrium. These data suggest that SK L-94901 is more effectively transported to nuclear TRs in hepatic cells than in pituitary cells and therefore shows liver-selective thyromimetic activity. In conclusion, SK L-94901 discriminates hepatic cells and pituitary cells at the nuclear transport process. The cellular transporters responsible for this discrimination were not evident.