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J Dupont, M Derouet, J Simon and M Taouis

Chronic treatment with corticosterone evokes insulin resistance in chickens, a species which is already resistant to insulin compared with mammals. The in vivo effects of corticosterone on insulin signaling were investigated in chicken liver and thigh muscle in two nutritional states: basal (overnight fasted) and stimulated (30 min refeeding). Corticosterone significantly decreased specific insulin binding in liver and the amount of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and p85 (regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase) in both tissues. Insulin receptor (IR) and IRS-1 mRNAs generally varied accordingly. Src homology and collagen protein (Shc) and messenger were not altered. In liver, in the basal state, the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1 and Shc, and the IR-associated PI 3'-kinase activity were largely decreased by corticosterone. Following refeeding the cascade was activated in control but totally inhibited in treated chickens. In muscle, as previously observed, IR and IRS-1 phosphorylation and PI 3'-kinase were not stimulated by refeeding in controls. Only the phosphorylation of Shc was increased. On this background, corticosterone decreased the basal PI 3'-kinase activity and prevented the phosphorylation of Shc in response to refeeding. In conclusion, corticosterone largely impaired insulin signaling in liver and to some extent in muscle. This should contribute to the large impairment of growth. In addition, the present studies further emphasize the peculiarities of insulin signaling in chicken muscle, which needs further investigation.

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M Taouis, M Derouet, J P Caffin and J Simon

Abstract

Insulin receptor number and insulin responsiveness were compared in a chicken hepatoma cell line (LMH) and in normal chicken hepatocyte (cHep) cells cultured in the same conditions. LMH cells expressed two- to threefold more insulin receptors than cHep cells, without significant changes in affinity. The tyrosine kinase activity of solubilized and lectin (lentil+wheat germ agglutinin; WGA)-purified LMH receptors was higher than that of cHep receptors. The ATP hydrolytic activity previously observed in WGA-purified receptors from chicken liver membranes was also present in WGA-purified receptors from cultured cHep cells. This unidentified membrane-associated ATPase was absent from LMH membrane-solubilized material and therefore from WGA-purified LMH insulin receptors. Finally, LMH cells incorporated at least tenfold more amino isobutyric acid than cHep cells in the absence of insulin and were more responsive to insulin. The enhanced basal amino acid transport of LMH cells was most probably the consequence of their proliferative activity. The enhanced insulin responsiveness of LMH cells can be accounted for, at least in part, by one or several of the modifications presently demonstrated in LMH cells when compared with normal cultured hepatocytes: increased insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity and possibly the loss of the membrane-associated ATPase.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 140, 119–124

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A F Roy, Y Benomar, V Bailleux, C M Vacher, A Aubourg, A Gertler, J Djiane and M Taouis

Hyperprolactinemia and hyperleptinemia occur during gestation and lactation with marked hyperphagia associated with leptin resistance. Prolactin (PRL) induces the expression of orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) through the activation of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) leading to hyperphagia. PRL may also act through the inhibition of anorexigenic effect of leptin via induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3). This paper aimed to co-localize PRL (PRL-R) and leptin (ObRb) receptors in the hypothalamus of female rats and investigate the possible cross-desensitization between PRL-R and ObRb. We showed that: 1) PRL-R and ObRb are expressed in the PVN and co-localized in the same neurons; 2) in lactating females leptin failed to activate JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway; 3) in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) stably co-expressing PRL-R and ObRb, overexposure to PRL did not affect leptin signaling but totally abolished PRL-dependent STAT-5 phosphorylation. The overexposure to leptin produces similar results with strong alteration of leptin-dependent STAT-3 phosphorylation, whereas PRL-dependent STAT-5 was not affected; and 4) CHO-ObRb/PRL-R cells overexposure to leptin or PRL induces the expression of negative regulators SOCS-3 and PTP-1B. Thus, we conclude that these negative regulators affect specifically the inducer signaling pathway; for instance, SOCS-3 induced by PRL will affect PRL-R signaling but not ObRb signaling and vice versa. Finally, the lack of cross-desensitization between PURL-R and ObRb suggests that hyperphagia observed during gestation and lactation may be attributed to a direct effect of PRL on NPYexpression, and is most likely exacerbated by the physiological leptin resistance state.

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E Guillod-Maximin, A F Roy, C M Vacher, A Aubourg, V Bailleux, A Lorsignol, L Pénicaud, M Parquet and M Taouis

Adiponectin is involved in the control of energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues through Adipor1 and Adipor2 receptors. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that this adipocyte-secreted hormone may also act at the hypothalamic level to control energy homeostasis. In the present study, we observed the gene and protein expressions of Adipor1 and Adipor2 in rat hypothalamus using different approaches. By immunohistochemistry, Adipor1 expression was ubiquitous in the rat brain. By contrast, Adipor2 expression was more limited to specific brain areas such as hypothalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In arcuate and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, Adipor1, and Adipor2 were expressed by neurons and astrocytes. Furthermore, using transgenic green fluorescent protein mice, we showed that Adipor1 and Adipor2 were present in pro–opiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Finally, adiponectin treatment by intracerebroventricular injection induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the rat hypothalamus. This was confirmed by in vitro studies using hypothalamic membrane fractions. In conclusion, Adipor1 and Adipor2 are both expressed by neurons (including POMC and NPY neurons) and astrocytes in the rat hypothalamic nuclei. Adiponectin is able to increase AMPK phosphorylation in the rat hypothalamus. These data reinforced a potential role of adiponectin and its hypothalamic receptors in the control of energy homeostasis.