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M. Tepel, S. Bauer, S. Husseini, A. Raffelsiefer and W. Zidek

ABSTRACT

Cytosolic free sodium concentrations ([Na+]i) in intact platelets from 32 type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and from 27 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects were measured with the novel sodium-sensitive fluorescent dye sodium-binding-benzofuran-isophthalate. [Na+]i was significantly higher in platelets from type 2 diabetic patients compared with control subjects (40·6 ± 2·4 vs 32·0 ± 2·0 mmol/l, means ± s.e.m., P<0·03). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in diabetic patients compared with control subjects. Analysis of diabetic patients showed a significant association between [Na+]i and diastolic blood pressure (P =0·026). Stimulation of Na/H exchange by thrombin increased [Na+]i in both groups. After inhibition of Na/K/ATPase by ouabain (1 mmol/l), [Na+]i was significantly increased both in diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects in a similar way (by 40·2 ± 7·3 and 31·7 ± 5·3 mmol/l respectively). It is concluded that increased [Na+]i in cells from type 2 diabetic patients may be related to hypertension.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 565–572

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M Tepel, B Frye, M Burchardt, J Ruhwinkel, C Spieker and W Zidek

To determine the effects of an oral glucose challenge on cellular Na+/H+ exchange in vivo we measured plasma glucose concentrations, plasma insulin concentrations, plasma C-peptide concentrations, arterial blood pressure, cytosolic pH (pHi) and cellular Na+/H+ exchange in 24 patients with essential hypertension (HT) and 41 age-matched healthy normotensive control subjects (NT) during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test. Under resting conditions, the plasma glucose concentrations, plasma insulin concentrations, plasma C-peptide concentrations and Na+/H+ exchange activity were significantly higher in HT compared with NT (P < 0.05 in each case). A significant increase in lymphocytic Na+/H+ exchange activity was only seen in NT (resting 0 h: (4.23 +/- 0.2) x 10(-3) pHi/s; mean +/- S.E.M.; 1 h after glucose administration: (6.00 +/- 0.56) x 10(-3) pHi/s; 2 h after glucose administration: (6.65 +/- 0.64) x 10(-3) pHi/s; P = 0.0003 by Friedman's two-way ANOVA), but not in HT (resting 0 h: (6.07 +/- 0.36) x 10(-3) pHi/s; 1 h after glucose administration: (6.72 +/- 1.02) x 10(-3) pHi/s; 2 h after glucose administration: (6.71 +/- 0.62) x 10(-3) pHi/s; P = 0.7470). During an oral glucose challenge the systolic (P < 0.0001) and diastolic (P < 0.0001) blood pressure significantly decreased in HT but not in NT. Essential hypertension shows abnormal in vivo regulation of Na+/H+ exchange and blood pressure following oral glucose intake.