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R Otton, Mendonca JR, and R Curi

An enhanced susceptibility to infections is well known to occur in a poorly controlled diabetic state. Since glucose and glutamine are essential for lymphocyte function, we investigated whether their metabolism is changed in lymphocytes obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes of alloxan-induced diabetic rats (40 mg/kg body weight). The activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), citrate synthase and phosphate-dependent glutaminase were determined. Decarboxylation of metabolites [U-14C]-, [1-14C]- and [6-14C]-glucose, [1-14C]- and [2-14C]-pyruvic acid, [U-14C]-palmitic acid and [U-14C]-glutamine was evaluated in incubated lymphocytes isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. The measurements were carried out in cells following three experimental protocols: (1) lymphocytes freshly obtained from control and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, (2) lymphocytes from insulin-treated (2 U/rat per day) diabetic rats and (3) lymphocytes obtained from control and diabetic rats and cultured in the presence of insulin (1 mU/ml) for 6 h. The activities of hexokinase, G6PDH and citrate synthase were decreased by the diabetic state, whereas that of phosphofructokinase was raised. Decarboxylation of [U-14C]- and [6-14C]-glucose, [1-14C]- and [2-14C]-pyruvate and [U-14C]-glutamine were also decreased in lymphocytes from diabetic rats, whereas [U-14C]-palmitic acid decarboxylation was increased. Insulin administration in vivo or added to the culture medium reversed the changes observed in freshly obtained lymphocytes. Alloxan-induced diabetes did change lymphocyte metabolism and this may be an important mechanism leading to impairment of lymphocyte function.

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João A B Pedroso, Pedro O R de Mendonca, Marco A S Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara F P Lotfi, and Jose Donato Jr

Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Histological markers of the fetal adrenal zone (or X-zone in rodents) were still present in adult males and postpartum SF1 Socs3 KO females, suggesting a previously unrecognized effect of SOCS3 on the terminal differentiation of the adrenal gland. This change led to a distinct distribution of lipid droplets along the adrenal cortex. Under basal conditions, adult SF1 Socs3 KO mice exhibited similar adrenal weight, and plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. Nonetheless, SF1 Socs3 KO mice exhibited a blunted ACTH-induced corticosterone secretion. The overall metabolic responses induced by resistance training remained unaffected in SF1 Socs3 KO mice, including changes in body adiposity, glucose tolerance and energy expenditure. However, training performance and glucose control during intense resistance exercise were impaired in SF1 Socs3 KO mice. Furthermore, a reduced counter-regulatory response to 2-deoxy-d-glucose was observed in mutant mice. These findings revealed a novel participation of SOCS3 regulating several endocrine and metabolic aspects. Therefore, cytokine signaling in SF1 cells exerts an important role to sustain training performance possibly by promoting the necessary metabolic adjustments during exercise.