Altered permeability of the endothelial barrier in a variety of tissues has implications both in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Glucocorticoids are potent mediators of endothelial permeability, and this forms the basis for their heavily prescribed use as medications to treat ocular disease. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on endothelial barriers elsewhere in the body is less well studied. Here, we investigated glucocorticoid-mediated changes in endothelial flux of Adiponectin (Ad), a hormone with a critical role in diabetes. First, we used monolayers of endothelial cells in vitro and found that the glucocorticoid dexamethasone increased transendothelial electrical resistance and reduced permeability of polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 4000 Da). Dexamethasone reduced flux of Ad from the apical to basolateral side, measured both by ELISA and Western blotting. We then examined a diabetic rat model induced by treatment with exogenous corticosterone, which was characterized by glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was no change in circulating Ad but less Ad protein in skeletal muscle homogenates, despite slightly higher mRNA levels, in diabetic vs control muscles. Dexamethasone-induced changes in Ad flux across endothelial monolayers were associated with alterations in the abundance of select claudin tight junction (TJ) proteins. shRNA-mediated knockdown of one such gene, claudin-7, in HUVEC resulted in decreased TEER and increased adiponectin flux, confirming the functional significance of Dex-induced changes in its expression. In conclusion, our study identifies glucocorticoid-mediated reductions in flux of Ad across endothelial monolayers in vivo and in vitro. This suggests that impaired Ad action in target tissues, as a consequence of reduced transendothelial flux, may contribute to the glucocorticoid-induced diabetic phenotype.
Thanh Q Dang, Nanyoung Yoon, Helen Chasiotis, Emily C Dunford, Qilong Feng, Pingnian He, Michael C Riddell, Scott P Kelly and Gary Sweeney
Sandra Pereira, Wen Qin Yu, María E Frigolet, Jacqueline L Beaudry, Yaniv Shpilberg, Edward Park, Cristina Dirlea, B L Grégoire Nyomba, Michael C Riddell, I George Fantus and Adria Giacca
We have shown in rats that sodium salicylate (SS), which inhibits IkBa kinase B (IKKB), prevents hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance caused by short-term (7 h) i.v. administration of Intralipid and heparin (IH). We wished to further determine whether this beneficial effect of SS persisted after prolonged (48 h) IH infusion, which better mimics the chronic free fatty acid (FFA) elevation of obesity. Hence, we performed hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps with tritiated glucose methodology to determine hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in rats infused with saline, IH, IH and SS, or SS alone. SS prevented peripheral insulin resistance (P<0.05) caused by prolonged plasma FFA elevation; however, it did not prevent hepatic insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, protein levels of phospho-IkBa were augmented by prolonged IH administration and this was prevented by SS, suggesting that IH activates while SS prevents the activation of IKKB. Markers of IKKB activation, namely protein levels of phospho-IkBa and IkBa, indicated that IKKB is not activated in the liver after prolonged FFA elevation. Phosphorylation of serine 307 at insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, which is a marker of proximal insulin resistance, was not altered by IH administration in the liver, suggesting that this is not a site of hepatic insulin resistance in the prolonged lipid infusion model. Our results suggest that the role of IKKB in fat-induced insulin resistance is time and tissue dependent and that hepatic insulin resistance induced by prolonged lipid elevation is not due to an IRS-1 serine 307 kinase.