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Sheng-Gao Tang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Ji-Ming Ye, Ting-Ting Hu, Ying-Ying Yang, Ting Han, and Wen Tan

Diabetes-induced injury of myocardium, defined as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), accounts for significant mortality and morbidity in diabetic population. Alleviation of DCM by a potent drug remains considerable interests in experimental and clinical researches because hypoglycemic drugs cannot effectively control this condition. Here, we explored the beneficial effects of isosteviol sodium (STVNa) on type 1 diabetes-induced DCM and the potential mechanisms involved. Male Wistar rats were induced to diabetes by injection of streptozotocin (STZ). One week later, diabetic rats were randomly grouped to receive STVNa (STZ/STVNa) or its vehicle (STZ). After 11 weeks of treatment or 11 weeks treatment following 4 weeks of removal of the treatment, the cardiac function and structure were evaluated and related mechanisms were investigated. In diabetic rats, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood glucose and plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were significantly increased, whereas superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) expression and activity were decreased. STVNa treatment inhibited cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation, showed similar ratio of heart to body weight and antioxidant capacities almost similar to the normal controls, which can be sustained at least 4 weeks. Moreover, STVNa inhibited diabetes-inducted stimulation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal pathways. However, blood glucose, plasma AGE and insulin levels were not altered by STVNa treatment. These results indicate that STVNa may be developed into a potent therapy for DCM. The mechanism underlying this therapeutic effect involves the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibiting ERK and NF-κB without changing blood glucose or AGEs.

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Ming-sheng Ye, Liping Luo, Qi Guo, Tian Su, Peng Cheng, and Yan Huang

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is emerging as a target to beat obesity through the dissipation of chemical energy to heat. However, the molecular mechanisms of brown adipocyte thermogenesis remain to be further elucidated. Here, we show that KCTD10, a member of the polymerase delta-interacting protein 1 family, was reduced in BAT by cold stress and a β3 adrenoceptor agonist. Moreover, KCTD10 level increased in the BAT of obese mice, and KCTD10 overexpression attenuates uncoupling protein 1 expression in primary brown adipocytes. BAT-specific KCTD10 knockdown mice had increased thermogenesis and cold tolerance protecting from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Conversely, overexpression of KCTD10 in BAT caused reduced thermogenesis, cold intolerance, and obesity. Mechanistically, inhibiting Notch signaling restored the KCTD10 overexpression-suppressed thermogenesis. Our study presents that KCTD10 serves as an upstream regulator of Notch signaling pathway to regulate BAT thermogenesis and whole-body metabolic function.