There is longstanding interest in the role of androgens in the aetiology of prostate cancer, one of the most common malignancies worldwide. In this review, we reflect on the ways that knowledge of prostate development and hormone action have catalysed advances in the management of patients with prostate cancer. The use of hormone therapies to treat prostate cancer has changed significantly over time, including the emergence of androgen receptor signalling inhibitors (ARSI). These compounds have improved outcomes for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, which was once considered ‘androgen-independent’ but is clearly still driven by androgen receptor signalling in many cases. There is also a need for new therapies to manage neuroendocrine prostate cancer, which is not responsive to hormonal agents. One of the major gaps is understanding how treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer emerges and whether it can be re-sensitised to treatment. Patient-derived models, including patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), will be instrumental in facilitating future discoveries in these areas. Developments in the use of PDXs have been fostered by lessons from the field of endocrinology, such as the role of stroma and hormones in normal and developmental tissues. Thus, there is ongoing reciprocity between the discoveries in endocrinology and advances in prostate cancer research and treatment.
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- Author: Mitchell Lawrence x
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