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Sami Dridi, Mohammed Taouis, Arieh Gertler, Eddy Decuypere and Johan Buyse

Emerging evidence suggests a potential role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of several energy balance-related factors (leptin, cerulenin, food deprivation, genotype, and gender) on SCD gene expression in chickens. In experiment 1, 6-week-old female and male broiler chickens were used. In experiment 2, two groups of 3-week-old broiler chickens were continuously infused with recombinant chicken leptin (8 μg/kg/h) or vehicle for 6 h. In experiment 3, two groups of 2-week-old broiler chickens received i.v. injections of cerulenin (15 mg/kg) or vehicle. In experiment 4, two broiler chicken lines (fat and lean) were submitted to two nutritional states (food deprivation for 16 or 24 h and feeding ad libitum). At the end of each experiment, tissues were collected for analyzing SCD gene expression. Data from experiment 1 showed that SCD is ubiquitously expressed in chicken tissues with highest levels in the proventriculus followed by the ovary, hypothalamus, kidney, liver, and adipose tissue in female, and hypothalamus, leg muscle, pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue in male. Female chickens exhibited significantly higher SCD mRNA levels in kidney, breast muscle, proventriculus, and intestine than male chickens. However, hypothalamic SCD gene expression was higher in male than in female (P < 0.05). Leptin increased SCD gene expression in chicken liver (P < 0.05), whereas cerulenin decreased SCD mRNA levels in muscle. Both leptin and cerulenin significantly reduced food intake (P < 0.05). Food deprivation for either 16 or 24 h decreased the hepatic SCD gene expression in fat line and lean line chickens compared with their fed counterparts (P < 0.05). The hypothalamic SCD mRNA levels were decreased in both lines only after 24 h of food deprivation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, SCD is ubiquitously expressed in chickens and it is regulated by leptin, cerulenin, nutritional state, and gender in a tissue-specific manner.

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Jie Miao, Yacir Benomar, Sarah Al Rifai, Ghislaine Poizat, Laure Riffault, Delphine Crépin and Mohammed Taouis

Autophagy is a non-selective degradation pathway induced in energy-deprived cells and in non-starved cells by participating in cellular inflammatory responses mainly through the elimination of injured and aged mitochondria that constitute an important source of reactive oxygen species. We have previously reported that resistin/TLR4 signaling pathway induces inflammation and insulin resistance in neuronal cell. However, the impact of resistin-induced inflammation on neuronal autophagy is unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that resistin-induced neuroinflammation could be attributed, at least partially, to the impairment of autophagy pathways in neuronal cells. Our data show that resistin decreases neuronal autophagy as evidenced by the repression of the main autophagy markers in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Furthermore, the silencing of TLR4 completely abolished these effects. Resistin also inhibits AMPK phosphorylation and increases that of Akt/mTOR contrasting with activated autophagy where AMPK phosphorylation is augmented and mTOR inhibited. In vivo, resistin treatment inhibits the mRNA expression of autophagy markers in the hypothalamus of WT mice but not in Tlr4−/− mice. In addition, resistin strongly diminished LC3 (a marker of autophagy) labeling in the arcuate nucleus of WT mice, and this effect is abolished in Tlr4−/− mice. Taken together, our findings clearly reveal resistin/TLR4 as a new regulatory pathway of neuronal autophagy.

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Charlotte Benoit, Hassina Ould-Hamouda, Delphine Crepin, Arieh Gertler, Laurence Amar and Mohammed Taouis

Perinatal leptin impairment has long-term consequences on energy homeostasis leading to body weight gain. The underlying mechanisms are still not clearly established. We aimed to analyze the long-term effects of early leptin blockade. In this study, newborn rats received daily injection of a pegylated rat leptin antagonist (pRLA) or saline from day 2 (d2) to d13 and then body weight gain, insulin/leptin sensitivity, and expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) at the hypothalamic level were determined at d28, d90, or d153 (following 1 month of high-fat diet (HFD) challenge). We show that pRLA treatment predisposes rats to overweight and promotes leptin/insulin resistance in both hypothalamus and liver at adulthood. pRLA treatment also modifies the hypothalamic miRNA expression profile at d28 leading to the upregulation of 34 miRNAs and the downregulation of four miRNAs. For quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, we show the upregulation of rno-miR-10a at d28 and rno-miR-200a, rno-miR-409-5p, and rno-miR-125a-3p following HFD challenge. Finally, pRLA treatment modifies the expression of genes involved in energy homeostasis control such as UCPs and AdipoRs. In pRLA rat muscle, Ucp2/3 and Adipor1/r2 are upregulated at d90. In liver, pRLA treatment upregulates Adipor1/r2 following HFD challenge. These genes are known to be involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the impairment of leptin action in early life promotes insulin/leptin resistance and modifies the hypothalamic miRNA expression pattern in adulthood, and finally, this study highlights the potential link between hypothalamic miRNA expression pattern and insulin/leptin responsiveness.

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Hamza Amine, Yacir Benomar, Adil Haimeur, Hafida Messaouri, Nadia Meskini and Mohammed Taouis

The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

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Hassina Ould Hamouda, Bernadette Delplanque, Yacir Benomar, Delphine Crépin, Laure Riffault, Pascale LeRuyet, Cécile Bonhomme and Mohammed Taouis

Malnutrition in the elderly is accompanied by several metabolic dysfunctions, especially alterations in energy homeostasis regulation and a loss of insulin responsiveness. Nutritional recommendations aim to enrich food with high protein and energy supplements, and protein composition and lipid quality have been widely studied. Despite the numerous studies that have examined attempts to overcome malnutrition in the elderly through such nutritional supplementation, it is still necessary to study the effects of a combination of protein, lipids, and vitamin D (VitD). This can be done in animal models of elderly malnutrition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of several diet formulae on insulin responsiveness, inflammation, and the hypothalamic expression of key genes that are involved in energy homeostasis control. To mimic elderly malnutrition in humans, elderly Wistar rats were food restricted (R, −50%) for 12 weeks and then refed for 4 weeks with one of four different isocaloric diets: a control diet; a diet where milk soluble protein (MSP) replaced casein; a blend of milk fat, rapeseed, and DHA (MRD); or a full formula (FF) diet that combined MSP and a blend of MRD (FF). All of the refeeding diets contained VitD. We concluded that: i) food restriction led to the upregulation of insulin receptor in liver and adipose tissue accompanied by increased Tnf α in the hypothalamus; ii) in all of the refed groups, refeeding led to similar body weight gain during the refeeding period; and iii) refeeding with MSP and MRD diets induced higher food intake on the fourth week of refeeding, and this increase was associated with reduced hypothalamic interleukin 6 expression.