There is considerable evidence that the GH/IGF-I axis plays an important role in female reproduction. We report the isolation and characterization of the GH receptor (GH-R) and its gene expression profile during oogenesis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. cDNA encoding GH-R was cloned and sequenced from the tilapia liver. The predicted GH-R preprotein consisted of 635 amino acids and contained a putative signal peptide, an extracellular region with a characteristic motif, a single transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic region with conserved box 1 and 2 domains. The tilapia GH-R shared 34-74% identities with known GH-Rs in vertebrates. A binding assay using COS-7 cells showed that the cloned GH-R bound specifically to tilapia GH. Northern blot analysis showed a single mRNA transcript in the liver and ovary. In situ hybridization revealed intense signals of GH-R in the cytoplasm and nucleus of immature oocytes. The granulosa and theca cells surrounding vitellogenic oocytes also contained the GH-R mRNA signals. About a tenfold greater level of GH-R mRNA was found in the immature oocytes versus the mature oocytes, along with high levels of IGF-I mRNA. There were no significant changes in mRNA levels of GH-R and IGF-I in the liver or in plasma IGF-I levels during oocyte development. No correlation was found between hepatic GH-R mRNA and ovarian GH-R mRNA. These results suggest that the GH/IGF-I axis in the ovary may be involved in the early phases of oogenesis, under a different regulatory mechanism of GH-R gene expression from that of the liver.
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- Author: N Kawaguchi x
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S Kajimura, N Kawaguchi, T Kaneko, I Kawazoe, T Hirano, N Visitacion, EG Grau, and K Aida
T Yamashita, I Sekiya, N Kawaguchi, K Kashimada, A Nifuji, YI Nabeshima, and M Noda
Unloading induces bone loss as seen in experimental animals as well as in space flight or in bed-ridden conditions; however, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not fully understood. Klotho mutant mice exhibit osteopetrosis in the metaphyseal regions indicating that the klotho gene product is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. To examine whether the klotho gene product is involved in the unloading-induced bone loss, the response of the osteopetrotic cancellous bones in these mice was investigated. Sciatic nerve resection was conducted using klotho mutant (kl/kl) and control heterozygous mice (+/kl) and its effect on bone was examined by micro-computed tomography (microCT). As reported previously for wild-type mice (+/+), about 30% bone loss was induced in heterozygous mice (+/kl) by unloading due to neurectomy within 30 days of the surgery. By contrast, kl/kl mice were resistant against bone loss induced by unloading after neurectomy. Unloading due to neurectomy also induced a small but significant bone loss in the cortical bone of the mid-shaft of the femur in the heterozygous mice; no reduction in the cortical bone was observed in kl/kl mice. These results indicate that klotho mutant mice are resistant against bone loss induced by unloading due to neurectomy in both cortical and trabecular bone and indicate that klotho is one of the molecules involved in the loss of bone by unloading.