Growth hormone receptor (GHR) cDNA and gene of the Japanese flounder (Paralicthys olivaceus) were cloned and their molecular structures were characterized. The 641 amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence showed more than 75% overall sequence similarity with GHRs of other teleosts such as turbot and goldfish, and contained common structural features of vertebrate GHRs. The extracellular domain of flounder GHR had three pairs of cysteines and an FGEFS motif with a replacement E to D. The cytoplasmic domain contained two conserved motifs referred to as box 1 and box 2. The flounder GHR gene was cloned by PCR using primers designed from the sequence of the GHR cDNA. The GHR gene was composed of 10 exons. The sequence of exon 1 corresponded to the 5'-untranslated region of the cDNA, and exons 2-6 encoded most parts of the extracellular domain. The transmembrane domain was found in exon 7, and the intracellular domain was encoded in exons 8-10. Exon 10 also encoded the 3'-untranslated region. Comparison of the flounder GHR gene with the human GHR gene shows that the flounder gene contains no exons corresponding to exon 3 of the human GHR gene, and that the region corresponding to exon 10 in the human GHR gene is encoded by exons 9 and 10 in the flounder GHR gene. These findings indicate that the flounder GHR gene diverged from those of mammalian and avian GHR genes, especially in the organization of the exons encoding the cytoplasmic domain. In addition to the regular form of GHR mRNA, a 3'-truncated form lacking the region derived from exons 9 and 10 was detected as a minor species in the liver by RT-PCR and by RNase protection assay. RT-PCR analysis showed that both the regular and the 3'-truncated GHR mRNAs are expressed in a wide range of flounder tissues with the highest levels being found in the liver. The 5'-flanking region of the flounder GHR gene was cloned by inverse PCR, and three transcription start points were identified with similar frequency by RNase protection assay.
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N Nakao, Y Higashimoto, T Ohkubo, H Yoshizato, N Nakai, K Nakashima, and M Tanaka
T. Tominaga, J. Fukata, Y. Naito, Y. Nakai, S. Funakoshi, N. Fujii, and H. Imura
We have examined the mechanism by which corticostatin-I (CS-I) acts to attenuate ACTH-induced steroidogenesis in rat adrenal cells. CS-I inhibited ACTH-induced corticosterone production in a dosedependent manner, without any effects on the basal corticosterone level in adrenal cells. When the cells were stimulated by 100 pg ACTH/ml, the minimum effective concentration of CS-I was 100 ng/ml, and 0.3–1.0 μg CS-I/ml produced a 50% reduction of the stimulated corticosterone production. The inhibitory effect of CS-I on ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production became apparent within 15 min of incubation, and the effect was reversed quickly by the removal of CS-I from the media. CS-I had no effect on angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone production by adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. CS-I also did not affect cyclic AMP- or forskolin-stimulated corticosterone production. In an in-vitro binding study using 125I-labelled CS-I, CS-I showed considerable specific binding to rat adrenal cells, and the binding competed with ACTH in a dose-dependent manner. These experiments suggest that CS-I competes with ACTH on their binding sites and exerts an inhibitory effect on the adrenal cells.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 125, 287–292
T Mano, R Sinohara, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, K Asano, Y Ito, M Kotake, M Hamada, A Nakai, and A Nagasaka
To determine how lipid peroxides and free radical scavengers are changed in the brain of hyper- or hypothyroid rats, we examined the behavior of lipid peroxide and free radical scavengers in the cerebral cortex of aged (1·5 years old) rats that had been made hyper- or hypothyroid by the administration of thyroxine or methimazol for 4 weeks. Concentrations of catalase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid rats. Concentrations of total SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-PX were increased but that of Mn-SOD was decreased in hypothyroid animals. There were no differences among hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and euthyroid rats in the levels of coenzymes 9 or 10. The concentration of lipid peroxides, determined indirectly by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactants, was decreased in hyperthyroid rats but not in hypothyroid rats when compared with euthyroid animals.
These findings suggest that free radicals and lipid peroxides are scavenged to compensate for the changes induced by hyper- or hypothyroidism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 361–365
T Mano, R Sinohara, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, M Kotake, M Hamada, R Masunaga, A Nakai, and A Nagasaka
Active oxygen species are reported to cause organ damage. This study was therefore designed to determine the behaviour of antioxidants and free radical scavengers so as to reveal changes in animals in the hyper- and hypothyroid state.
Levels of antioxidant factors (i.e. coenzyme Q (CoQ)10, CoQ9 and vitamin E) and free radical scavengers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were measured in the heart muscles of rats rendered hyper- or hypothyroid by 4 weeks of thyroxine (T4) or methimazol treatment. Serum levels of CoQ9 and total SOD were also measured.
A significant reduction in CoQ9 levels was observed in the heart muscles of both hyper- and hypothyroid rats when compared with control hearts. There was no difference in serum CoQ9 levels in thyroid dysfunction when compared with control animals. Levels of vitamin E in the heart muscles of hyperthyroid rats were significantly increased, and there was no reduction in vitamin E levels in hypothyroid rats when compared with control hearts. GSH-PX levels in the heart muscle were reduced in hyperthyroid rats and increased in hypothyroid rats when compared with control hearts. However, there were no differences in catalase levels in heart muscle between hyper- and hypothyroid rats. The concentration of SOD in heart muscle was increased in hyperthyroid rats and was not decreased in hypothyroid rats compared with control rats, suggesting the induction of SOD by excessive production of O2 −.
These data suggest that the changes in these scavengers have some role in cardiac dysfunction in the hyper- and hypothyroid state in the rat.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 145, 131–136
T Mokuno, K Uchimura, R Hayashi, N Hayakawa, M Makino, M Nagata, H Kakizawa, Y Sawai, M Kotake, N Oda, A Nakai, A Nagasaka, and M Itoh
The deterioration of glucose metabolism frequently observed in hyperthyroidism may be due in part to increased gluconeogenesis in the liver and glucose efflux through hepatocyte plasma membranes. Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT 2), a facilitative glucose transporter localized to the liver and pancreas, may play a role in this distorted glucose metabolism. We examined changes in the levels of GLUT 2 in livers from rats with l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism or methimazole-induced hypothyroidism by using Western blotting to detect GLUT 2. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed an oxyhyperglycemic curve (impaired glucose tolerance) in hyperthyroid rats (n=7) and a flattened curve in hypothyroid rats (n=7). GLUT 2 levels in hepatocyte plasma membranes were significantly increased in hyperthyroid rats and were not decreased in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid rats. The same results were obtained with a densitometric assay. These findings suggest that changes in the liver GLUT 2 concentration may contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in thyroid disorders.
T Mano, K Iwase, I Yoshimochi, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, M Kotake, A Nakai, N Hayakawa, R Kato, A Nagasaka, and H Hidaka
Hyper- and hypothyroid states occasionally induce skeletal muscle dysfunction i.e. periodic paralysis and thyroid myopathy. The etiology of these diseases remains unclear, but several findings suggest that the catecholamine-β-receptor-cAMP system or other messenger systems are disturbed in these diseases. In this context, we evaluated changes in the cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide metabolic enzyme, cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and calmodulin concentrations in skeletal muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.
Activities of cyclic AMP-PDE were low in skeletal muscle both from hyper- and hypothyroid rats, and calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats, as compared with normal rats. DE-52 column chromatographic analysis showed that the cGMP hydrolytic activity in peak I and the cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak II were decreased in hypothyroid rats, whereas cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was unchanged. The cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was decreased in hyperthyroid rats, but the activities in peaks I and II were unchanged. These findings indicate that cAMP and calmodulin may have some role in skeletal muscle function in the hyperthyroid state, and that cAMP and calmodulin-dependent metabolism may be suppressed in the hypothyroid state.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 287–292
T Mano, K Iwase, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, Y Itoh, M Kotake, R Masunaga, A Nakai, T Tujimura, A Nagasaka, and H Hidaka
To investigate the effect of thyroid hormone on cardiac muscle dysfunction in hyper- and hypothyroid states, we evaluated cyclic 3′, 5′-nucleotide metabolism by measuring cyclic 3′, 5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and calmodulin concentrations in the cardiac muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration was significantly high in the cardiac muscle of hyperthyroid rats and low in that from hypothyroid rats compared with control rats. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities were significantly decreased in the soluble fraction of cardiac muscle from hyperthyroid rats and markedly increased in this fraction in hypothyroid rats compared with normal animals. Calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats.
It was concluded from these findings that low cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity might, in part, bring about the high concentration of cAMP. Calmodulin was sigificantly high in the cardiac muscle of hyperthyroid rats and the reverse was the case in hypothyroid rats compared with normal rats. The implication is that, in hyper- and hypothyroid states, these changes may play an important role in cardiac function via their effect on cyclic nucleotide and Ca2+ metabolism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 143, 515–520
H. Imura, Y. Kato, Y. Nakai, K. Nakao, I. Tanaka, H. Jingami, T. Koh, T. Yoshimasa, T. Tsukada, M. Suda, M. Sakamoto, N. Morii, H. Takahashi, K. Tojo, and A. Sugawara
Advances in techniques in molecular biology have facilitated the research into endogenous opioids and related peptides in several ways. The organization and expression of genes and the primary structure of three precursor proteins of opioid peptides have been elucidated. These studies predicted the presence of potentially bioactive peptides, which has been confirmed by later studies. Advances in techniques in protein chemistry have helped to elucidate the distribution and molecular forms of endogenous opioids and related peptides in the body, and the processing of precursor proteins. Studies on the function of these peptides have shown a broad spectrum of actions. Leumorphin, a newly identified peptide, has been shown to exhibit unique biological activities. In spite of extensive studies, the physiological and pathophysiological significance of opioid peptide systems are not yet completely understood. This is mainly due to the paucity of our knowledge about opioid receptors. Further studies on the subtypes of opioid receptors will help to elucidate all aspects of the function of endogenous opioids and related peptides.
J. Endocr. (1985) 107, 147–157