Thyroid hormones affect reactions in almost all pathways of lipid metabolism. It has been reported that plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration in hypothyroidism is generally within the normal range. In this study, however, we show that plasma FFA concentration in some hypothyroid patients is higher than the normal range. Symptoms of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals were less severe than those of patients with lower plasma FFA concentrations. From these findings we hypothesized that the change in FFA concentration must correlate with thyroid function. Using an animal model, we then examined the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-E), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from fish oil, on thyroid function in 1-methyl-2-imidazolethiol (MMI)-induced hypothyroid rats. Oral administration of EPA-E inhibited reduction of thyroid hormone levels and the change of thyroid follicles in MMI-induced hypothyroid rats. These findings suggest that FFA may affect thyroid functions and EPA-E may prevent MMI-induced hypothyroidism.
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M Makino, N Oda, N Miura, S Imamura, K Yamamoto, T Kato, K Fujiwara, Y Sawai, K Iwase, A Nagasaka, and M Itoh
T Tsugawa, R Shinohara, A Nagasaka, I Nakano, F Takeda, M Nagata, N Oda, Y Sawai, N Hayakawa, A Suzuki, and M Itoh
An accelerated polyol pathway in diabetes contributes to the development of diabetic complications. To elucidate diabetic nephropathy involving also renal tubular damage, we measured urinary sorbitol concentration concomitantly with urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion in WBN-kob diabetic rats.Twenty-four-hour urinary sorbitol concentrations increased in the diabetic rats in parallel with whole blood sorbitol concentrations. An increase in 24-h urinary NAG excretion coincided with the elevated urinary sorbitol levels in the diabetic rats. The administration of epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, reduced the increased whole blood and urinary sorbitol concentrations and urinary NAG excretion concomitantly with renal aldose reductase inhibition in the diabetic rats.These results indicate that diabetic nephropathy involves distorted cell function of renal tubules, and that treatment with epalrestat may prevent at least the progress of the nephropathy.
T Mano, R Sinohara, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, K Asano, Y Ito, M Kotake, M Hamada, A Nakai, and A Nagasaka
To determine how lipid peroxides and free radical scavengers are changed in the brain of hyper- or hypothyroid rats, we examined the behavior of lipid peroxide and free radical scavengers in the cerebral cortex of aged (1·5 years old) rats that had been made hyper- or hypothyroid by the administration of thyroxine or methimazol for 4 weeks. Concentrations of catalase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid rats. Concentrations of total SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-PX were increased but that of Mn-SOD was decreased in hypothyroid animals. There were no differences among hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and euthyroid rats in the levels of coenzymes 9 or 10. The concentration of lipid peroxides, determined indirectly by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactants, was decreased in hyperthyroid rats but not in hypothyroid rats when compared with euthyroid animals.
These findings suggest that free radicals and lipid peroxides are scavenged to compensate for the changes induced by hyper- or hypothyroidism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 361–365
T Mano, R Sinohara, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, M Kotake, M Hamada, R Masunaga, A Nakai, and A Nagasaka
Active oxygen species are reported to cause organ damage. This study was therefore designed to determine the behaviour of antioxidants and free radical scavengers so as to reveal changes in animals in the hyper- and hypothyroid state.
Levels of antioxidant factors (i.e. coenzyme Q (CoQ)10, CoQ9 and vitamin E) and free radical scavengers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were measured in the heart muscles of rats rendered hyper- or hypothyroid by 4 weeks of thyroxine (T4) or methimazol treatment. Serum levels of CoQ9 and total SOD were also measured.
A significant reduction in CoQ9 levels was observed in the heart muscles of both hyper- and hypothyroid rats when compared with control hearts. There was no difference in serum CoQ9 levels in thyroid dysfunction when compared with control animals. Levels of vitamin E in the heart muscles of hyperthyroid rats were significantly increased, and there was no reduction in vitamin E levels in hypothyroid rats when compared with control hearts. GSH-PX levels in the heart muscle were reduced in hyperthyroid rats and increased in hypothyroid rats when compared with control hearts. However, there were no differences in catalase levels in heart muscle between hyper- and hypothyroid rats. The concentration of SOD in heart muscle was increased in hyperthyroid rats and was not decreased in hypothyroid rats compared with control rats, suggesting the induction of SOD by excessive production of O2 −.
These data suggest that the changes in these scavengers have some role in cardiac dysfunction in the hyper- and hypothyroid state in the rat.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 145, 131–136
Y. Oda, K. Mashita, M. Mori-Tanaka, K. Kitajima, J. Miyagawa, K. Tajima, T. Hanafusa, N. Kono, and Y. Matsuzawa
We examined the effect of noradrenaline on the release of 3,5,3′-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) from perifused mouse thyroid. Noradrenaline suppressed the thyrotrophin (TSH)-stimulated release of T3 and T4. The addition of prazosin, which is a specific α1 antagonist, or the depletion of Ca2+ from the perifusion buffer completely abolished the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on TSH-stimulated T3 and T4 release. Noradrenaline did not inhibit TSH-stimulated cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) release in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), which inhibits both cAMPspecific and calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterases. Noradrenaline significantly suppressed the TSH-stimulated release of T3 and T4 in the presence of IBMX. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on TSH-stimulated T3 and T4 release is not mediated through a cAMP-dependent process or the activation of a calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterase, and that this inhibition is mediated through a Ca2+-dependent process regulated by the α1-adrenergic system in the mouse thyroid.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 73–80
T Mokuno, K Uchimura, R Hayashi, N Hayakawa, M Makino, M Nagata, H Kakizawa, Y Sawai, M Kotake, N Oda, A Nakai, A Nagasaka, and M Itoh
The deterioration of glucose metabolism frequently observed in hyperthyroidism may be due in part to increased gluconeogenesis in the liver and glucose efflux through hepatocyte plasma membranes. Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT 2), a facilitative glucose transporter localized to the liver and pancreas, may play a role in this distorted glucose metabolism. We examined changes in the levels of GLUT 2 in livers from rats with l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism or methimazole-induced hypothyroidism by using Western blotting to detect GLUT 2. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed an oxyhyperglycemic curve (impaired glucose tolerance) in hyperthyroid rats (n=7) and a flattened curve in hypothyroid rats (n=7). GLUT 2 levels in hepatocyte plasma membranes were significantly increased in hyperthyroid rats and were not decreased in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid rats. The same results were obtained with a densitometric assay. These findings suggest that changes in the liver GLUT 2 concentration may contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in thyroid disorders.
T Mano, K Iwase, I Yoshimochi, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, M Kotake, A Nakai, N Hayakawa, R Kato, A Nagasaka, and H Hidaka
Hyper- and hypothyroid states occasionally induce skeletal muscle dysfunction i.e. periodic paralysis and thyroid myopathy. The etiology of these diseases remains unclear, but several findings suggest that the catecholamine-β-receptor-cAMP system or other messenger systems are disturbed in these diseases. In this context, we evaluated changes in the cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide metabolic enzyme, cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and calmodulin concentrations in skeletal muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.
Activities of cyclic AMP-PDE were low in skeletal muscle both from hyper- and hypothyroid rats, and calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats, as compared with normal rats. DE-52 column chromatographic analysis showed that the cGMP hydrolytic activity in peak I and the cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak II were decreased in hypothyroid rats, whereas cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was unchanged. The cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was decreased in hyperthyroid rats, but the activities in peaks I and II were unchanged. These findings indicate that cAMP and calmodulin may have some role in skeletal muscle function in the hyperthyroid state, and that cAMP and calmodulin-dependent metabolism may be suppressed in the hypothyroid state.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 287–292
T Mano, K Iwase, Y Sawai, N Oda, Y Nishida, T Mokuno, Y Itoh, M Kotake, R Masunaga, A Nakai, T Tujimura, A Nagasaka, and H Hidaka
To investigate the effect of thyroid hormone on cardiac muscle dysfunction in hyper- and hypothyroid states, we evaluated cyclic 3′, 5′-nucleotide metabolism by measuring cyclic 3′, 5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and calmodulin concentrations in the cardiac muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration was significantly high in the cardiac muscle of hyperthyroid rats and low in that from hypothyroid rats compared with control rats. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities were significantly decreased in the soluble fraction of cardiac muscle from hyperthyroid rats and markedly increased in this fraction in hypothyroid rats compared with normal animals. Calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats.
It was concluded from these findings that low cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity might, in part, bring about the high concentration of cAMP. Calmodulin was sigificantly high in the cardiac muscle of hyperthyroid rats and the reverse was the case in hypothyroid rats compared with normal rats. The implication is that, in hyper- and hypothyroid states, these changes may play an important role in cardiac function via their effect on cyclic nucleotide and Ca2+ metabolism.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 143, 515–520