Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) is a member of the CC chemokines. We have previously reported the use of a whole bone marrow culture system to show that MIP-1alpha stimulates the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells. Here we use rat bone marrow cells deprived of stromal cells, and clones obtained from murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264 to show that MIP-1alpha acts directly on cells in osteoclast lineage. We obtained several types of RAW264 cell clones, one of these clones, designated as RAW264 cell D clone (D clone), showed an extremely high response to receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), while the other clone, RAW264 cell N clone (N clone), demonstrated no response to RANKL or TNF-alpha. Although both clones expressed receptor activator NFkappaB (RANK) before being stimulated for differentiation, only the D clone expressed cathepsin K when cells were stimulated to differentiate to osteoclasts. MIP-1alpha stimulated the formation of mononuclear preosteoclast-like cells from rat bone marrow cells deprived of stromal cells. MIP-1alpha also stimulated formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells from the D clone, when these cells were stimulated with RANKL and TNF-alpha. These findings provide strong evidence to show that MIP-1alpha acts directly on cells in the osteoclast lineage to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, pretreatment of RAW264 cell D clone with MIP-1alpha significantly induced adhesion properties of these cells to primary osteoblasts, suggesting a crucial role for MIP-1alpha in the regulation of the interaction between osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts in osteoclastogenesis.
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T Watanabe, T Kukita, A Kukita, N Wada, K Toh, K Nagata, H Nomiyama, and T Iijima
S Otabe, N Wada, T Hashinaga, X Yuan, I Shimokawa, T Fukutani, K Tanaka, T Ohki, S Kakino, Y Kurita, H Nakayama, Y Tajiri, and K Yamada
We previously reported that transgenic (Tg) expression of adiponectin significantly prolonged the lifespan of normal mice. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism involved in the longevity effects of adiponectin using KK/Ta mice, a murine model of metabolic syndrome. We established a Tg line of KK/Ta (Tg-KK/Ta) mice expressing human adiponectin in the liver, and assessed their lifespan. The cause of death was determined by macroscopic and microscopic examinations immediately after death. The expressions of SIRT1, C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory cytokines, AMPK, and AKT were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISAs, and/or western blotting. KK/Ta mice had lower serum adiponectin levels and shorter lifespan (57.6±13.9 vs 106.5±18.3 weeks, P<0.0001) than C57BL/6N mice. Tg adiponectin expression significantly extended the lifespan of KK/Ta mice (73.6±16.6 weeks, P<0.001) without affecting body weight, daily food consumption, or plasma glucose levels. Neoplasms were observed in only three of 22 KK/Ta mice that died spontaneously because of tumors. Atherosclerotic lesions were not detected in any mice. SIRT1 levels were not significantly different between KK/Ta and Tg-KK/Ta mice. Gene expressions of Crp, Tnf α, Il6, and Nf κ b were increased in KK/Ta mice, but they were significantly attenuated in Tg-KK/Ta mice. Phosphorylated AMPK levels were increased and phosphorylated AKT levels were decreased in Tg-KK/Ta mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin, achieved by inhibiting the AKT signaling pathway, may explain how adiponectin slows the accelerated aging process associated with the metabolic syndrome.