Recent evidence has demonstrated that insulin resistance is related to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our previous study found that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and brain insulin resistance but also brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Vildagliptin and sitagliptin, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors, are recently developed anti-diabetic drugs. However, the effects of both drugs on cognitive behaviors and brain mitochondrial function in HFD-induced insulin-resistant rats have not yet been investigated. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either normal diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Rats in each group were then further divided into three treatment groups to receive either vehicle, vildagliptin (3 mg/kg per day), or sitagliptin (30 mg/kg per day) for 21 days. The cognitive behaviors of the rats were tested using the Morris Water Maze test. Blood samples were collected to determine metabolic parameters and plasma oxidative stress levels. Upon completion of the study, the animals were killed and the brains were removed to investigate brain and hippocampal mitochondrial function as well as to determine oxidative stress levels. We demonstrated that both drugs significantly improved the metabolic parameters and decreased circulating and brain oxidative stress levels in HFD-induced insulin-resistant rats. In addition, both drugs completely prevented brain and hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction and equally improved the learning behaviors impaired by the HFD. Our findings suggest that the inhibition of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 enzymes with vildagliptin or sitagliptin in insulin-resistant rats not only increases peripheral insulin sensitivity but also decreases brain dysfunction.
Hiranya Pintana, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Pongpan Tanajak, Hiranya Pintana, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption causes cardiac dysfunction. Although calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be useful in obesity, we hypothesized that combined CR with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor provides greater efficacy than monotherapy in attenuating cardiac dysfunction and metabolic impairment in HFD-induced obese-insulin resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups to be fed on either a normal diet (ND, n = 6) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Then, HFD rats were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) to receive just the vehicle, CR diet (60% of mean energy intake and changed to ND), vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or combined CR and vildagliptin for 4 weeks. Metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac mitochondrial function, left ventricular (LV) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 signaling pathway were determined. Rats on a HFD developed insulin and FGF21 resistance, oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired LV function. Rats on CR alone showed both decreased body weight and visceral fat accumulation, whereas vildagliptin did not alter these parameters. Rats in CR, vildagliptin and CR plus vildagliptin subgroups had improved insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress. However, vildagliptin improved heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac mitochondrial function and LV function better than the CR. Chronic HFD consumption leads to obese-insulin resistance and FGF21 resistance. Although CR is effective in improving metabolic regulation, vildagliptin provides greater efficacy in preventing cardiac dysfunction by improving anti-apoptosis and FGF21 signaling pathways and attenuating cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant rats.
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Tharnwimol Inthachai, Suree Lekawanvijit, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) leads to progressive heart failure. Obese-insulin resistance increases risks of MI and heart failure. Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor is known to exert cardioprotection, its effects on adverse remodeling after MI in obese-insulin-resistant rats are unclear. We hypothesized that DPP4 inhibitor reduces adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and LV dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant rats with MI. Rats were fed either normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obese-insulin resistance, followed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation to induce MI. Then, rats in each dietary group were divided into five subgroups to receive vehicle, enalapril (10mg/kg/day), metformin (30mg/kg/day), DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day), or combined metformin and vildagliptin for 8 weeks. Heart rate variability (HRV), LV function, pathological and biochemical studies for LV remodeling, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were determined. Obese-insulin-resistant rats had severe insulin resistance and LV dysfunction. HFD rats had a higher mortality rate than ND rats, and all treatments reduced the mortality rate in obese-insulin-resistant rats. Although all drugs improved insulin resistance, HRV, LV function as well as reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, vildagliptin effectively reduced cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas more than enalapril and was related to markedly decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In ND rats with MI, metformin neither improved LV ejection fraction nor reduced cardiac fibrosis. The infarct size and transforming growth factor-β expression were not different among groups. In obese-insulin-resistant rats with chronic MI, DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin exerts better cardioprotection than enalapril in attenuating adverse LV remodeling.
Apiwan Arinno, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Puntarik Kaewthep, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Although a physiological dose of testosterone replacement therapy (p-TRT) has been shown to improve left ventricular (LV) function, some studies reported that it increased the risk of myocardial infarction in testosterone-deprived men. We previously reported that vildagliptin might be used as an alternative to p-TRT. In this study, we hypothesized that a combined low-dose TRT with vildagliptin exerts greater efficacy than single regimen in improving cardiometabolic function in obese, insulin-resistant rats with testosterone deprivation. Male rats were fed on a normal diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Then, they were divided into two subgroups, sham operation and orchiectomy (normal diet rats with orchiectomy (NDO), high-fat diet rats with orchiectomy (HFO)) and fed their diets for another 12 weeks. At week 25, orchiectomized rats were subdivided into four groups: vehicle, p-TRT, vildagliptin and combined drugs. At week 29, cardiometabolic and biochemical parameters were determined. HFO rats had obese insulin resistance with a worse LV dysfunction, compared with sham. Vildagliptin and combined drugs effectively reduced insulin resistance. All treatments reduced blood pressure, cardiac autonomic imbalance, LV dysfunction, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and increased mitochondrial fusion in NDO and HFO rats. However, p-TRT and combined drugs, but not vildagliptin, reduced mitochondrial fission in NDO and HFO rats. We concluded that combined low-dose TRT with vildagliptin mitigated LV function at a similar level to the p-TRT alone and vildagliptin via improving mitochondrial fusion, reducing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in testosterone-deprived rats. Our findings suggest that low-dose TRT combined with vildagliptin may be an alternative for p-TRT in conditions of obese insulin resistance with testosterone deprivation.
Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Siripong Palee, Kenneth Chattipakorn, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Myocardial damage and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are intensified by endogenous estrogen deprivation. Although N-acetylcysteine (NAC) exerted cardioprotective effects, its benefits when used in combination with hormone therapy are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of NAC with low-dose estrogen improves cardiometabolic function and protects cardiac mitochondria against I/R injury, to a similar extent to regular-dose estrogen treatment, in estrogen-deprived rats. Female Wistar rats had a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation. Twelve weeks after the operation, OVX rats were treated with regular-dose estrogen (E; 50 µg/kg/day), low-dose estrogen (e; 25 µg/kg/day), NAC (N; 100 mg/kg/day) or combined low-dose estradiol with NAC (eN) for 4 weeks (n = 6/group). Metabolic parameters, echocardiography, heart rate variability and then cardiac I/R protocol involving 30-min coronary artery ligation, followed by 120-min reperfusion, were performed. OVX rats had increased body weight, visceral fat, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR index, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels (P < 0.05 vs sham). Only OVX-E and OVX-eN had a similarly improved HOMA-IR index. LVEF was increased in all treatment groups, but HRV was restored only by OVX-E and OVX-eN. After I/R, myocardial infarct size was decreased in both OVX-E and OVX-eN groups. OVX-E and OVX-eN rats similarly had a reduced mitochondrial ROS level and increased mitochondrial membrane potential in the ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, combined NAC with low-dose estrogen and regular-dose estrogen therapy similarly improve cardiometabolic function, prevent cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces the infarct size in estrogen-deprived rats with cardiac I/R injury.