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J. M. Pell and P. C. Bates

ABSTRACT

Long–term administration of GH to normal, well–fed lambs caused a significant increase in net muscle growth. This could be accounted for by increased rates of muscle protein synthesis, although red and white muscles responded differently. The increased rate of protein synthesis was due to an increased protein synthetic capacity (increased muscle RNA content) but efficiency per unit of RNA also tended to increase in red muscle. For similar increases in net growth, protein turnover was increased to a much greater extent in red than in white muscle. The ratio of collagen to non–collagen protein was unaffected in both muscle types by GH treatment, even though collagen synthesis rates were significantly increased in red muscle. To date, GH is the only anabolic agent in ruminants which acts via increased rates of protein synthesis rather than by decreased rates of protein degradation.

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P. C. Bates and A. T. Holder

ABSTRACT

The individual effects of GH and thyroxine (T4) on protein metabolism were determined in dwarf and normal mice in vivo. The hormone deficiencies of dwarf mice (low serum concentrations of GH and T4) resulted in decreased protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and liver, but no difference in synthesis rates in heart. The efficiency of synthesis (g protein/g RNA per day; KRNA) was lower in all three tissues in dwarf compared with normal mice, but effects on RNA concentration were not consistent; there was no change in muscle, a decrease in liver and an increase in heart.

Treatment of dwarf mice for 9 days with either human GH or T4 caused increases in body weight and length. Protein synthesis rates were increased in muscle, liver and heart by either hormone, though much more so with T4 than GH. In muscle and liver both GH and T4 treatment resulted in an increased RNA concentration, but T4 treatment also increased KRNA. In heart, both GH and T4 increased KRNA with no change in RNA concentration. GH caused no significant changes in protein degradation rates so that growth rates were increased. T4 increased degradation rates so that there was no increased net growth in muscle or liver; in heart, T4 did induce increased growth despite the large increase in degradation rate. Tibial length was increased by both hormones; GH treatment of dwarf mice also increased cartilage sulphate incorporation on day 9, but T4 treatment did not, suggesting that bone growth is transient with T4 treatment.

Normal mice showed no changes in growth or tissue protein metabolism in response to GH, but following T4 treatment there was increased protein turnover due to higher tissue RNA concentrations, although only heart growth was increased. Thus normal mice showed almost no net response to GH or T4, but dwarf mice showed a large response to both hormones. The response was different, however, in that GH caused concomitant increases in growth rates whereas T4 altered body tissue proportions.

J. Endocr. (1988) 119, 31–41

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P. C. Bates, R. Aston and A. T. Holder

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) to GH has been shown to increase the anabolic response induced by the hormone in individual tissues of dwarf mice. Dwarf mice were treated with GH at a low and a high dose (2·5 and 50 mU/day respectively), with and without complexing to an MAb. Treatment was for 7 and 14 days, at which times protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle, liver and heart were determined from incorporation of labelled phenylalanine following injection of a flooding dose. The MAb potentiated the actions of GH and produced increases in the rates of protein synthesis in each of the tissues to a significantly greater extent than did GH alone.

The increase in protein synthesis rate induced by MAb appears to be mechanistically distinct from that observed by increasing the dose of GH. In skeletal muscle and liver there was a dose–response to the GH alone in terms of the RNA concentration, i.e. the capacity for protein synthesis, whereas in each tissue examined the MAb caused very little further response in the RNA concentration. The MAb-induced enhancement of protein synthesis rate was almost entirely due to an increase in the RNA activity, i.e. the efficiency of the synthesizing system.

Complexing GH to a particular MAb, or to antisera of restricted epitope specificity, has previously been shown to enhance the in-vivo effects of GH on whole body protein content; the mechanism for this enhancement has not been adequately determined. The present results suggest that the mechanism of MAb enhancement of GH activity is unlikely to be through prolonging GH action by increasing its serum half-life, but may be through effects on GH-receptor response, possibly through targeting of the GH to a particular receptor sub-type or through inhibition of internalization of the GH-receptor complex.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 369–375

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Z. A. H. Yahya, P. C. Bates and D. J. Millward

ABSTRACT

The relative biological importance of plasma levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) is uncertain since the IGFs may act through endocrine mechanisms involving circulating IGFs secreted by the liver, or by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms with IGF production in or close to their target cells. We report here studies in rats designed to examine this problem with an investigation of the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations of IGF-I in relation to the inhibition of bone and muscle growth and proteoglycan synthesis, a putative IGF-I-sensitive process, by protein deficiency. Over a 3-week period in young well-fed growing rats, there were marked increases in plasma IGF-I, whereas in the protein-deficient animals in which growth was inhibited concentrations fell markedly. In bone, concentrations of IGF-I were initially 20% of plasma, did not increase with age and were minimally influenced by protein deficiency. In skeletal muscle, concentrations of IGF-I were initially 3% of plasma, did not increase with age, but did fall with protein deficiency. In bone, the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis by the protein deficiency was not correlated with changes in tissue IGF-I concentrations and was poorly correlated with changes in plasma hormone concentrations, although in the latter case an exponential relationship could be fitted to the data from the initial control and subsequent protein-deficient animals. In muscle, the changes in proteoglycan synthesis were significantly linearly correlated with changes in tissue IGF-I compared with an exponential relationship with plasma concentrations from the initial control and subsequent protein-deficient animals. These data demonstrate that neither plasma IGF-I concentrations nor the level of total extractable tissue IGF-I can be assumed to be unequivocal determinants of IGF-I status.

Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 127, 497–503

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P. C. Bates, L. F. Chew and D. J. Millward

ABSTRACT

The effects of the anabolic steroid stanozolol on whole body and muscle growth and protein metabolism in the rat have been examined. No responses could be found in normal well-fed male rats. Female rats responded to 1 mg/kg per day with an increased body and skeletal muscle growth rate and an increase in muscle protein synthesis. The anabolic action on muscle protein synthesis was due to increased RNA concentration with no change in the rate of protein synthesis per unit RNA (K RNA). Investigation of any anticatabolic effects of stanozolol treatment in male rats deprived of food for 24 h indicated no response of protein balance and turnover. However, rats treated with catabolic doses of corticosterone (50 mg/kg per day) did respond to stanozolol with decreased muscle growth inhibition due to better-maintained muscle protein synthesis. The latter response was due to a reversal of the corticosterone-induced reduction of K RNA, but with no effect on RNA concentration. Thus there appear to be at least two effects of stanozolol; an anabolic action evident only in female rats, involving increased muscle RNA concentrations, and an anticatabolic action involving inhibition of the corticosterone-induced fall in muscle RNA activity. In both cases, stanozolol influenced muscle protein synthesis with no evident effects on protein degradation.

J. Endocr. (1987) 114, 373–381

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P. C. Bates, P. T. Loughna, J. M. Pell, D. Schulster and D. J. Millward

ABSTRACT

Hypophysectomy of adult rats results in a loss of body growth which can be reversed by treatment with GH. The increased growth caused by administration of GH is accompanied by an increase in food consumption. The effects of GH and interactions with nutrition were investigated by treating hypophysectomized rats with GH and either providing unrestricted food or preventing the increased food consumption by pair-feeding with the same intake as that of the hypophysectomized animals.

Over the 7-day experimental period, the GH-treated animals grew significantly when food was available ad libitum but did not gain body weight when an increase in food intake was prevented. However, there was a significant interaction between GH and nutrition on body composition; GH significantly decreased body fat and increased the protein: fat ratio only in the animals with the restricted intake. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was increased by GH regardless of food intake, but heart weight did not increase and liver weight was actually decreased by GH teatment when food intake was restricted. Serum concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were increased by GH in the rats with food available ad libitum but not in the pair-fed rats. However, the liver concentration of IGF-I and its mRNA were increased by GH although the increase in IGF-I mRNA was modulated by the restricted food intake. The decreased weight of the liver in the pair-fed GH-treated rats, despite the increase in IGF-I mRNA, suggests that IGF-I does not influence liver growth. In the gastrocnemius muscle, however, GH increased IGF-I mRNA concentration similarly in both rats with food available ad libitum and in pair-fed rats. Decreased nutrition therefore modulated the action of GH but emphasized its nutrient partitioning effect, thus increasing the anabolic drive towards skeletal muscle growth; this appeared to be mediated by the local production of IGF-I within the muscle.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 139, 117–126

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R. SWAMINATHAN, R. F. L. BATES, S. R. BLOOM, P. C. GANGULI and A. D. CARE

SUMMARY

The role of calcitonin (CT) in postprandial calcium homeostasis and the possibility of a gastroentero-thyroid C-cell system was studied in young pigs. When pigs were fasted for more than 36 h and then fed, the plasma calcium concentration decreased by 6·1% over a period of 60–120 min after a meal. Since in thyroidectomized pigs the plasma calcium concentration increased by 7·2% when they were fed after a fast of 36 h it is suggested that increased CT secretion assists in the control of postprandial hypercalcaemia. Direct measurement of CT in peripheral plasma supported this suggestion. Because the plasma calcium concentration in an intact pig on a normal feeding regime does not change after a meal, the possibility of the involvement of one or more humoral factors in the stimulation of thyroid C-cells was investigated. Exogenous gastrin and endogenous gastrin stimulated by meat extract were both previously shown by us to increase CT secretion rate. This observation has now been extended to include other stimuli to endogenous gastrin, e.g. glycine and gastric distension. Furthermore, partially purified enteroglucagon increased CT secretion rate from perfused thyroid glands, isolated in situ. Stimulation of endogenous entero-glucagon by the intraduodenal administration of glucose, and probable stimulation of endogenous pancreozymin by intraduodenal fat, were both associated with an increased CT secretion rate from the thyroid gland.

These results support the concept of a gastroentero-thyroid C-cell system which serves to stimulate CT secretion and thus to protect the skeleton from excessive bone resorption during periods of dietary sufficiency.

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A. D. CARE, R. F. L. BATES, R. SWAMINATHAN and P. C. GANGULI

SUMMARY

Our earlier observation that pentagastrin is a calcitonin (CT) secretagogue was confirmed and extended to include both synthetic human gastrin I and pure porcine gastrin II. The latter hormone was shown to stimulate the secretion rate of CT from thyroid preparations perfused in situ in anaesthetized pigs at concentrations (0·5 nmol/l) similar to those found after stimulation of gastrin production by a meat extract placed in the stomach (0·2 nmol/1). These concentrations of plasma gastrin are considerably less than those found in man in both pernicious anaemia and the Zollinger—Ellison syndrome, whereas the mean fasting plasma gastrin concentrations in normal human beings and pigs are similar. It is suggested that the comparatively high incidence of parathyroid hyperactivity in association with the Zollinger—Ellison syndrome may be a consequence of an increased CT secretion rate induced by hypergastrinaemia. Furthermore, the existence of a gastrointestinal—thyroid C cell system is proposed as an integral part of postprandial calcium homeostasis.

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A. T. Holder, J. A. Blows, R. Aston and P. C. Bates

ABSTRACT

Dwarf mice were treated for 10 days with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), human growth hormone (hGH) or hGH with monoclonal antibody EB1 (hGH/MAB-EB1); for each treatment there were three groups which received 50, 75 or 100% of the amount of food eaten when available ad libitum.

The PBS control groups lost more or gained less weight than equivalent groups receiving hGH alone, and mice given hGH/MAB-EB1 showed a greater weight gain than those in comparable groups receiving hGH alone. When weight gain or loss was expressed as g/g food eaten, groups treated with hGH gained more or lost less than the PBS groups. Similarly, weight gain/g food was significantly greater in hGH/MAB-EB1 animals than in the comparable groups given hGH alone. A similar pattern of response was observed for increases in tail length and uptake of 35SO4 2− into costal cartilage in vivo. For mice given hGH alone, fat content was decreased compared with that in the equivalent group given PBS, and mice treated with hGH/MAB-EB1 had less fat than the equivalent group given hGH alone. Administration of hGH alone caused a concomitant increase in protein content and body weight such that, compared with mice given PBS, there was no significant increase in protein as a proportion of body weight. However, hGH/MAB-EB1 caused an increase in whole body protein which was significantly greater than that for the equivalent group given hGH alone, when expressed as per cent body weight.

Monoclonal antibody EB1 has been shown to enhance the actions of hGH on growth and body composition in Snell dwarf mice and to increase food conversion efficiency.

J. Endocr. (1988) 117,85–90

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T H M Da Costa, D H Williamson, A Ward, P Bates, R Fisher, L Richardson, D J Hill, I C A F Robinson and C F Graham

Abstract

Transgenic mice were made by introducing extra copies of the mouse insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene driven by the bovine keratin 10 promoter (BKVI). The adult plasma IGF-II levels were elevated at least three times in one line. In this line, there was a lower lipid content of both brown and white adipose depots at 2–4 months of age, and 40% less fat in the carcass at 7–9 months. The low lipid phenotype was not detected in the carcass at 2 weeks after birth. The lean characteristic was attributed to circulating IGF-II because the transgene was not expressed in fat. At 2–4 months of age, the transgenes oxidized more oral lipid, and less of this lipid was incorporated into the whole body and the epididymal fat. In contrast, the interscapular brown adipose tissue maintained lipid incorporation and lipoprotein lipase activity despite its reduced size. The altered activity of the brown adipose tissue may account for the gradual onset and persistence of the lean feature of the transgenic mice. There were no substantial changes in lipogenesis which could account for the low fat content. The plasma levels of IGF-I, insulin, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols and glucose were not greatly changed and the pituitary GH content was within the normal range.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 143, 433–439