The 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (72k-5ptase) controls signal transduction through the catalytic dephosphorylation of the 5-position of membrane-bound phosphoinositides. The reduction of 72k-5ptase expression in the hypothalamus results in improved hypothalamic insulin signal transduction and reduction of food intake and body mass. Here, we evaluated the tissue distribution and the impact of obesity on the expression of 72k-5ptase in peripheral tissues of experimental animals. In addition, insulin signal transduction and action were determined in an animal model of obesity and insulin resistance treated with an antisense (AS) oligonucleotide that reduces 72k-5ptase expression. In lean Wistar rats, 72k-5ptase mRNA and protein are found in highest levels in heart, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue. In three distinct models of obesity, Wistar rats, Swiss mice fed on high-fat diet, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, the expression of 72k-5ptase is increased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The treatment of obese Wistar rats with an anti-72k-5ptase AS oligonucleotide results in significant reduction of 72k-5ptase catalytic activity, which is accompanied by reduced food intake and body mass and improved insulin signal transduction and action as determined by immunoblotting and clamp studies respectively. 72k-5ptase expression is increased in obesity and its AS inhibition resulted in a significant improvement in insulin signal transduction and restoration of glucose homeostasis.
Daniela F Bertelli, Andressa Coope, Andrea M Caricilli, Patricia O Prada, Mario J Saad, Licio A Velloso and Eliana P Araujo
Graziela R Stoppa, Maristela Cesquini, Erika A Roman, Patrícia O Prada, Adriana S Torsoni, Talita Romanatto, Mario J Saad, Licio A Velloso and Marcio A Torsoni
We hypothesized that citrate might modulate the AMP-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (AMPK)/(ACC) pathway and participate in neuronal feeding control and glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we injected citrate into the lateral ventricle of rats. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of citrate diminished the phosphorylation of hypothalamic AMPK/ACC, increased the expression of anorexigenic neuropeptide (pro-opiomelanocortin and corticotropin-releasing hormone), elevated the level of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus, and reduced food intake. No change was observed in the concentration of blood insulin after the injection of citrate. With a euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp, the glucose infusion rate was higher in the citrate group than in the control group (28.6±0.8 vs 19.3±0.2 mU/kg body weight/min respectively), and so was glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and the epididymal fat pad. Concordantly, insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate type 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was improved by citrate ICV treatment. Moreover, the treatment with citrate for 7 days promoted body weight loss and decreased the adipose tissue. Our results suggest that citrate and glucose may serve as signals of energy and nutrient availability to hypothalamic cells.