The vitamin D receptor (VDR), but not its hormonal ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), is required for the progression of the mammalian hair cycle. We studied three genes relevant to hair cycle signaling, DKKL1 (Soggy), SOSTDC1 (Wise), and HR (Hairless), to determine whether their expression is regulated by VDR and/or its 1,25D ligand. DKKL1 mRNA was repressed 49–72% by 1,25D in primary human and CCD-1106 KERTr keratinocytes; a functional vitamin D responsive element (VDRE) was identified at −9590 bp in murine Soggy. Similarly, SOSTDC1 mRNA was repressed 41–59% by 1,25D in KERTr and primary human keratinocytes; a functional VDRE was located at −6215 bp in human Wise. In contrast, HR mRNA was upregulated 1.56- to 2.77-fold by 1,25D in primary human and KERTr keratinocytes; a VDRE (TGGTGAgtgAGGACA) consisting of an imperfect direct repeat separated by three nucleotides (DR3) was identified at −7269 bp in the human Hairless gene that mediated dramatic induction, even in the absence of 1,25D ligand. In parallel, a DR4 thyroid hormone responsive element, TGGTGAggccAGGACA, was identified at +1304 bp in the human HR gene that conferred tri-iodothyronine (T3)-independent transcriptional activation. Because the thyroid hormone receptor controls HR expression in the CNS, whereas VDR functions in concert with the HR corepressor specifically in skin, a model is proposed wherein unliganded VDR upregulates the expression of HR, the gene product of which acts as a downstream comodulator to feedback-repress DKKL1 and SOSTDC1, resulting in integration of bone morphogenic protein and Wnt signaling to drive the mammalian hair cycle and/or influencing epidermal function.
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Jui-Cheng Hsieh, Rudolf C Estess, Ichiro Kaneko, G Kerr Whitfield, Peter W Jurutka, and Mark R Haussler
Ichiro Kaneko, Rimpi K Saini, Kristin P Griffin, G Kerr Whitfield, Mark R Haussler, and Peter W Jurutka
In a closed endocrine loop, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) induces the expression of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in bone, with the phosphaturic peptide in turn acting at kidney to feedback repress CYP27B1 and induce CYP24A1 to limit the levels of 1,25D. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes, 1,25D represses FGF23 and leptin expression and induces C/EBPβ, but does not affect leptin receptor transcription. Conversely, in UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells, FGF23 mRNA concentrations are upregulated by 1,25D, an effect that is blunted by lysophosphatidic acid, a cell-surface acting ligand. Progressive truncation of the mouse FGF23 proximal promoter linked in luciferase reporter constructs reveals a 1,25D-responsive region between −400 and −200 bp. A 0.6 kb fragment of the mouse FGF23 promoter, linked in a reporter construct, responds to 1,25D with a fourfold enhancement of transcription in transfected K562 cells. Mutation of either an ETS1 site at −346 bp, or an adjacent candidate vitamin D receptor (VDR)/Nurr1-element, in the 0.6 kb reporter construct reduces the transcriptional activity elicited by 1,25D to a level that is not significantly different from a minimal promoter. This composite ETS1–VDR/Nurr1 cis-element may function as a switch between induction (osteocytes) and repression (adipocytes) of FGF23, depending on the cellular setting of transcription factors. Moreover, experiments demonstrate that a 1 kb mouse FGF23 promoter–reporter construct, transfected into MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells, responds to a high calcium challenge with a statistically significant 1.7- to 2.0-fold enhancement of transcription. Thus, the FGF23 proximal promoter harbors cis elements that drive responsiveness to 1,25D and calcium, agents that induce FGF23 to curtail the pathologic consequences of their excess.