Obese-insulin resistance following chronic high-fat diet consumption led to cognitive decline through several mechanisms. Moreover, sex hormone deprivation, including estrogen and testosterone, could be a causative factor in inducing cognitive decline. However, comparative studies on the effects of hormone deprivation on the brain are still lacking. Adult Wistar rats from both genders were operated upon (sham operations or orchiectomies/ovariectomies) and given a normal diet or high-fat diet for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Blood was collected to determine the metabolic parameters. At the end of the experiments, rats were decapitated and their brains were collected to determine brain mitochondrial function, brain oxidative stress, hippocampal plasticity, insulin-induced long-term depression, dendritic spine density and cognition. We found that male and female rats fed a high-fat diet developed obese-insulin resistance by week 8 and brain defects via elevated brain oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin-induced long-term depression, hippocampal dysplasticity, reduced dendritic spine density and cognitive decline by week 12. In normal diet-fed rats, estrogen deprivation, not testosterone deprivation, induced obese-insulin resistance, oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin-induced long-term depression, hippocampal dysplasticity and reduced dendritic spine density. In high-fat–diet-fed rats, estrogen deprivation, not testosterone deprivation, accelerated and aggravated obese-insulin resistance and brain defects at week 8. In conclusion, estrogen deprivation aggravates brain dysfunction more than testosterone deprivation through increased oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin-induced long-term depression and dendritic spine reduction. These findings may explain clinical reports which show more severe cognitive decline in aging females than males with obese-insulin resistance.
Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Hiranya Pintana, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Chiraphat Boonnag, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Pongpan Tanajak, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Savitree Thummasorn, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-i) effects on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are unclear. Unlike SGLT2-i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-i) have shown effective cardioprotection in cardiac I/R injury. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2-i reduces myocardial dysfunction and myocardial injury to a greater extent than DPP4-i in obese insulin-resistant rats with/without cardiac I/R injury. The high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese insulin-resistant rats were divided into 4 groups and received the following treatments for 28 days: vehicle (HFV); vildagliptin at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/day (HFVil); dapagliflozin at a dosage of 1 mg/kg/day (HFDa) and combination drugs (HFDaVil). At the end, I/R injury was induced by a 30-min left anterior descending coronary occlusion and 120-min reperfusion. Dapagliflozin showed a greater efficacy than vildagliptin in improving the metabolic impairments, low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, systolic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) function in comparison to HFV rats. In cardiac I/R injury, dapagliflozin had a greater efficacy than vildagiptin in decreasing mitochondrial DRP1, cleaved caspase 3, LV dysfunction and infarct size in comparison to HFV rats. However, the combined therapy showed the greatest efficacy in attenuating LV dysfunction, mitochondrial DRP1 and infarct size in comparison to HFV rats. In conclusion, dapagliflozin has a more pronounced effect than vildagliptin in obese insulin-resistant rats for the improvement of LV function. In rats with cardiac I/R injury, although dapagliflozin had a greater efficacy on cardioprotection than vildagliptin, the combined therapy exerted the highest cardioprotective effects potentially by reducing mitochondrial fission.