Adropin plays a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, insulin resistance prevention, and impaired glucose tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms by which adropin affects hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in vitro are not entirely understood. This study intended to examine the roles and underlying mechanisms of adropin in glucose and lipid metabolism in Nile tilapia. In primary cultured tilapia hepatocytes, adropin significantly attenuated oleic acid (OA)-induced glucose output and reduced the activities and mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), which are involved in gluconeogenesis. In contrast, adropin facilitated glucose uptake activity via glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) upregulation in OA-treated hepatocytes. One-week of adropin treatment reduced the hepatic total lipid accumulation in OA-fed tilapia without changes in body weight. Subsequent studies revealed that adropin suppressed OA-induced intracellular triglyceride accumulation and decreased the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolisms such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα) and CD36, but upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) levels. In parallel studies, however, adropin had no detectable effects on fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (Cpt1α) mRNA expression. Furthermore, adropin treatment dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Suppression of AMPK by compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA blocked adropin-induced decreases in the mature form of SREBP-1c expression, glucose output, and intracellular triglyceride content in OA-treated hepatocytes. These findings suggest that teleost adropin could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and triglyceride accumulation via a mechanism dependent on AMPK signalling.
Chaoyi Zhang, Qianli Zhang, Zhihong Huang and Quan Jiang
Yan Lin, Suyi Li, Peng Cao, Lu Cheng, Ming Quan and Suyu Jiang
Cancer-related malnutrition is a mortal threat to gastric carcinoma patients. However, conventional nutrition treatment is not effective for recovery. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) is widely accepted clinically to treat severe malnutrition caused by non-malignant diseases, but not approved to treat malignant diseases due to the safety concern. To explore the safety of rhGH on gastric cancer, we assessed the effect of rhGH on two tumor-bearing mice models in vivo established by human gastric adenoma cell lines of SGC-7901 and MKN-45. VEGF expression in tumor tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry. The expression of GH receptor (Ghr), Jak-2, Stat3, Vegf, Hif-1α, Fgf, and Mmp-2 was measured by RT-PCR and protein expression of STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, VEGF, HIF-1α, and MMP-2 was measured by western blotting. The immunocytochemistry results showed that the GHR expression of SGC-7901 was strongly positive (GHR+++), while GHR expression of MKN-45 was regarded as negative (GHR−). After 14 days of rhGH treatment in SGC-7901 (GHR+++) tumor-bearing mice, we found that the tumor growth was significantly increased, and the expressions of downstream factors and VEGF were increased. However, in MKN-45 (GHR−) tumor-bearing mice, tumor growth was not significantly increased by rhGH, but tumor-free body weight was increased especially in high-dose rhGH-treated group (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the level of GHR expression is a key target that influences the effectiveness of rhGH on promoting the growth of gastric cancer and angiogenesis. rhGH may promote the activation of tumor angiogenesis factors through the Jak-2–STAT3 pathway.
Dan Wang, Chu-Dan Liu, Meng-Li Tian, Cheng-Quan Tan, Gang Shu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Lin Zhang and Yu-Long Yin
Dietary fibers and their microbial fermentation products short-chain fatty acids promote metabolic benefits, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent studies indicate that intestinal lipid handling is under regulatory control and has broad influence on whole body energy homeostasis. Here we reported that dietary inulin and propionate significantly decreased whole body fat mass without affecting food intake in mice fed with chow diet. Meanwhile, triglyceride (TG) content was decreased and lipolysis gene expression, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (A tgl), hormone-sensitive lipase (H sl) and lysosomal acid lipase (L al) was elevated in the jejunum and ileum of inulin- and propionate-treated mice. In vitro studies on Caco-2 cells showed propionate directly induced enterocyte Atgl, Hsl and Lal gene expression and decreased TG content, via activation of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). Moreover, inulin and propionate could increase intestinal lipolysis under high-fat diet (HFD)-fed condition which contributed to the prevention of HFD-induced obesity. Our study suggests that dietary fiber inulin and its microbial fermentation product propionate can regulate metabolic homeostasis through regulating intestinal lipid handling, which may provide a novel therapeutic target for both prevention and treatment of obesity.