Long-term modulation of intercellular communication via gap junctions was investigated in TM3 Leydig cells, under low and high confluence states, and upon treatment of the cells for different times with activators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Cells in low confluence were readily coupled, as determined by transfer of the dye Lucifer Yellow; on reaching confluence, the cells uncoupled. Western blots and RT-PCR revealed that connexin 43 (Cx43) was abundantly expressed in TM3 Leydig cells and its expression was decreased after the cells achieved confluence. Stimulation of PKA or PKC induced a decrease in cell-cell communication. Staurosporin, an inhibitor of protein kinases, increased coupling and was able to prevent and reverse the uncoupling actions of dibutyryl cAMP and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Under modulation by confluence, Cx43 was localized to the appositional membranes when cells were coupled and was mainly in the cytoplasm when they were uncoupled. In addition, cAMP and TPA reduced the surface membrane labeling for Cx43, whereas staurosporin increased it. These data show a strong correlation between functional coupling and the membrane distribution of Cx43, implying that this connexin has an important role in intercellular communication between TM3 cells. Furthermore, increased testosterone secretion in response to luteinizing hormone was accompanied by a decrease in intercellular communication, suggesting that gap junction mediated coupling may be a modulator of hormone secretion in TM3 cells.
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- Author: RC Goldenberg x
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RC Goldenberg, FS Fortes, JM Cristancho, MM Morales, CR Franci, WA Varanda, and AC Campos de Carvalho
D Santos Ornellas, R Grozovsky, RC Goldenberg, DP Carvalho, P Fong, WB Guggino, and M Morales
Thyroid hormones has its main role in controlling metabolism, but it can also modulate extracellular fluid Volume (ECFV) through its action on the expression and activity of Na(+) transporters. Otherwise, chloride is the main anion in the ECFV and the influence of thyroid hormones in the regulation of chloride transporters is not yet understood. In this work, we studied the effect of thyroid hormones in the expression of ClC-2, a cell Volume-, pH- and voltage-sensitive Cl(-) channel, in rat kidney. To analyze the modulation of ClC-2 gene expression by thyroid hormones, we used hypothyroid (Hypo) rats with or without thyroxine (T(4)) replacement and hyperthyroid (Hyper) rats as our experimental models. Total RNA was isolated and the expression of ClC-2 mRNA was evaluated by a ribonuclease protection assay, and/or semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Renal ClC-2 expression decreased in Hypo rats and increased in Hyper rats. In addition, semi-quantitative RT-PCR of different nephron segments showed that these changes were due exclusively to the modulation of ClC-2 mRNA expression by thyroid hormone in convoluted and straight proximal tubules. To investigate whether thyroid hormones action was direct or indirect, renal proximal tubule primary culture cells were prepared and subjected to different T(4) concentrations. ClC-2 mRNA expression was increased by T(4) in a dose-dependent fashion, as analyzed by RT-PCR. Western blotting demonstrated that ClC-2 protein expression followed the same profile of mRNA expression.