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Mathias Fasshauer, Johannes Klein, Susan Kralisch, Margit Klier, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, and Ralf Paschke

A chronic increase in systemic levels of acute-phase reactants contributes to the development of insulin resistance and associated disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Recently, serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) has been characterized as an adipocyte-secreted acute-phase reactant, expression of which is dramatically increased in insulin resistance and obesity. To further clarify expression and regulation of this adipocytokine in fat, SAA3 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and after treatment with various hormones known to induce insulin resistance and contribute to atherosclerosis. SAA3 mRNA was dramatically induced up to 77-fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, 100 nM dexamethasone and 30 ng/ml interleukin (IL)-6 induced SAA3 mRNA by up to 11- and 4.8-fold, respectively, in a time-dependent fashion with significant stimulation observed at concentrations as low as 10 nM dexamethasone and 1 ng/ml IL-6. In contrast, insulin, isoproterenol and growth hormone did not influence SAA3 synthesis. Inhibitor studies suggested that the positive effect of IL-6 on SAA3 expression is at least in part mediated by Janus kinase 2. Taken together, our results show a differential regulation of SAA3 by glucocorticoids and IL-6 supporting an integrative role of this acute-phase reactant in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and its link to obesity and cardiovascular disease.

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Susan Kralisch, Johannes Klein, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, Ralf Paschke, Michael Stumvoll, and Mathias Fasshauer

Recently, visfatin was characterized as a novel adipo-cytokine that is upregulated in obesity and exerts insulin-mimetic effects in various tissues. To clarify expression and regulation of this adipocytokine, visfatin mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during adipogenesis and after treatment with various hormones known to alter insulin sensitivity. Visfatin expression was about 6-fold higher in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro as compared with epididymal fat in vivo and increased during adipogenic conversion more than 3-fold. Interestingly, 100 nM dexamethasone significantly increased visfatin mRNA by almost 1.5-fold. In contrast, 500 ng/ml growth hormone (GH), 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and 10 μM isoproterenol downregulated visfatin expression by 45%, 36%, and 43% respectively. Insulin did not influence synthesis of this adipocytokine. The effects of dexamethasone, GH, TNFα and isoproterenol were time- and dose-dependent. Furthermore, activation of Gs-protein-coupled pathways by forskolin and cholera toxin was sufficient to significantly downregulate visfatin mRNA. Taken together, our results show a differential regulation of visfatin mRNA by insulin resistance-inducing hormones, supporting the view that this adipo-cytokine might be an interesting novel candidate linking core components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and insulin resistance.