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Jocemara Patrícia Silva de Souza Parrela, Ingridys Regina Borkenhagen, Sarah Ramany Faria Salmeron, Thalyne Aparecida Leite Lima, Ginislene Dias Souza Miranda, Hercules Oliveira Costermani, Camila Luiza Rodrigues dos Santos Ricken, Ester Vieira Alves, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, and Júlio Cezar de Oliveira

Herein, we assessed milk hormones, the biochemical composition of milk, and its association with neonatal body weight gain and metabolic homeostasis in weaned rats whose mothers were undernourished in the last third of pregnancy. From the 14th day of pregnancy until delivery, undernourished mothers had their food restricted by 50% (FR50), whereas control mothers were fed ad libitum. The litter size was adjusted to eight pups, and rats were weaned at 22 days old. Milk and blood from mothers, as well as blood and tissues from pups, were collected for further analyses. At birth, FR50 pups were smaller than control pups, and they exhibited hyperphagia and rapid catch-up growth during the suckling period. On Day 12, the milk from FR50 mothers had higher energy content, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and acylated ghrelin but lower leptin and corticosterone levels. Interestingly, FR50 mothers were hypoglycemic and hyperleptinemic at the end of the nursing period. Weaned FR50 pups had an obese phenotype and exhibited insulin resistance, which was associated with hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia; they also had high blood levels of total cholesterol, leptin and acylated ghrelin. In addition, the protein expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) in the hypothalamus was increased by almost 4-fold in FR50 pups. In summary, maternal calorie restriction during the last third of pregnancy disrupts energy and metabolic hormones in milk, induces pup hyperleptinemia and hyperghrelinemia, and upregulates their hypothalamic GHS-R, thus suggesting that the hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuitry may be working to address the early onset of obesity.

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Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Luiz Felipe Barella, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Ananda Malta, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, and Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias

We examined the long-term effects of protein restriction during puberty on the function of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axes in male rats. Male Wistar rats from the age of 30 to 60 days were fed a low-protein diet (4%, LP). A normal-protein diet (20.5%) was reintroduced to rats from the age of 60 to 120 days. Control rats were fed a normal-protein diet throughout life (NP). Rats of 60 or 120 days old were killed. Food consumption, body weight, visceral fat deposits, lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, corticosteronemia, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), testosteronemia and leptinemia were evaluated. Glucose-insulin homeostasis, pancreatic-islet insulinotropic response, testosterone production and hypothalamic protein expression of the androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and leptin signaling pathway were also determined. LP rats were hypophagic, leaner, hypoglycemic, hypoinsulinemic and hypoleptinemic at the age of 60 days (P < 0.05). These rats exhibited hyperactivity of the HPA axis, hypoactivity of the HPG axis and a weak insulinotropic response (P < 0.01). LP rats at the age of 120 days were hyperphagic and exhibited higher visceral fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia and dyslipidemia; lower blood ACTH, testosterone and testosterone release; and reduced hypothalamic expression of AR, GR and SOCS3, with a higher pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio (P < 0.05). Glucose-insulin homeostasis was disrupted and associated with hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and increased insulinotropic response of the pancreatic islets. The cholinergic and glucose pancreatic-islet responses were small in 60-day-old LP rats but increased in 120-day-old LP rats. The hyperactivity of the HPA axis and the suppression of the HPG axis caused by protein restriction at puberty contributed to energy and metabolic disorders as long-term consequences.

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Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Audrei Pavanello, Laize Peron Tófolo, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Kelly Valério Prates, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Rosana Torrezan, Erica Yeo, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, and Ananda Malta

We tested whether chronic supplementation with soy isoflavones could modulate insulin secretion levels and subsequent recovery of pancreatic islet function as well as prevent metabolic dysfunction induced by early overfeeding in adult male rats. Wistar rats raised in small litters (SL, three pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, nine pups/dam) were used as models of early overfeeding and normal feeding, respectively. At 30 to 90 days old, animals in the SL and NL groups received either soy isoflavones extract (ISO) or water (W) gavage serving as controls. At 90 days old, body weight, visceral fat deposits, glycemia, insulinemia were evaluated. Glucose-insulin homeostasis and pancreatic-islet insulinotropic response were also determined. The early life overnutrition induced by small litter displayed metabolic dysfunction, glucose, and insulin homeostasis disruption in adult rats. However, adult SL rats treated with soy isoflavones showed improvement in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia, fat tissue accretion, and body weight gain, compared with the SL-W group. Pancreatic-islet response to cholinergic, adrenergic, and glucose stimuli was improved in both isoflavone-treated groups. In addition, different isoflavone concentrations increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets of all groups with higher magnitude in both NL and SL isoflavone-treated groups. These results indicate that long-term treatment with soy isoflavones inhibits early overfeeding-induced metabolic dysfunction in adult rats and modulated the process of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

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Isis Gabrielli Barbieri de Oliveira, Marcos Divino Ferreira Junior, Paulo Ricardo Lopes, Dhiogenes Balsanufo Taveira Campos, Marcos Luiz Ferreira-Neto, Eduardo Henrique Rosa Santos, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Bruna Del Vechio Koike, Carlos Henrique de Castro, André Henrique Freiria-Oliveira, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, and Daniel Alves Rosa

Disruptions in circadian rhythms have been associated with several diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Forced internal desynchronization induced by a period of T-cycles of 22 h (T22 protocol) reaches the lower limit of entrainment and dissociates the circadian rhythmicity of the locomotor activity into two components, driven by different outputs from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The main goal of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular and metabolic response in rats submitted to internal desynchronization by T22 protocol. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either a control group subjected to a usual T-cycles of 24 h (12 h–12 h) or an experimental group subjected to the T22 protocol involving a 22-h symmetric light–dark cycle (11 h–11 h). After 8 weeks, rats subjected to the T22 exhibited desynchrony in their locomotor activity. Although plasma glucose and insulin levels were similar in both groups, desynchronized rats demonstrated dyslipidemia, significant hypertrophy of the fasciculate zone of the adrenal gland, low IRB, IRS2, PI3K, AKT, SOD and CAT protein expression and an increased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the liver. Furthermore, though they maintained normal baseline heart rates and mean arterial pressure levels, they also presented reduced baroreflex sensitivity. The findings indicate that circadian timing desynchrony following the T22 protocol can induce cardiometabolic disruptions. Early hepatic metabolism dysfunction can trigger other disorders, though additional studies are needed to clarify the causes.