In the lizard Podarcis s. sicula, a substantial amount of d-aspartate (d-Asp) is endogenous to the testis and shows cyclic changes of activity connected with sex hormone profiles during the annual reproductive phases. Testicular d-Asp content shows a direct correlation with testosterone titres and a reverse correlation with 17β-estradiol titres. In vivo experiments, consisting of i.p. injections of 2.0 μmol/g body weight of d-Asp or other amino acids, in lizards collected during the three main phases of the reproductive cycle (pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive period), revealed that the testis can specifically take up and accumulate d-Asp alone. Moreover, this amino acid influences the synthesis of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in all phases of the cycle. This phenomenon is particularly evident during the pre- and post-reproductive period, when endogenous testosterone levels observed in both testis and plasma were the lowest and 17β-estradiol concentrations were the highest. d-Asp rapidly induces a fall in 17β-estradiol and a rise in testosterone at 3 h post-injection in the testis and at 6 h post-injection in the blood. In vitro experiments show that testicular tissue converted l-Asp into d-Asp through an aspartate racemase. d-Asp synthesis was measured in all phases of the cycle, but was significantly higher during the reproductive period with a peak at pH 6.0. The exogenous d-Asp also induces a significant increase in the mitotic activity of the testis at 3 h (P<0.05) and at 6 h (P<0.01). Induction of spermatogenesis by d-Asp is recognized by an intense immunoreactivity of the germinal epithelium (spermatogonia and spermatids) for proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The effects of d-Asp on the testis appear to be specific since they were not seen in lizards injected with other d- or l-forms of amino acids with known excitatory effects on neurosecretion. Our results suggest a regulatory role for d-Asp in the steroido-genesis and spermatogenesis of the testis of the lizard Podarcis s. sicula.
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F Raucci, S D’Aniello, and M M Di Fiore
F Raucci, L Assisi, S D'Aniello, P Spinelli, V Botte, and MM Di Fiore
This study investigated the involvement of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) in testicular steroidogenesis of the green frog Rana esculenta and its effect on stimulation of thumb pad morphology and glandular activity, a typical testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristic in this amphibian species. In the testis, D-Asp concentrations vary significantly during the reproductive cycle: they are low in pre- and post-reproductive periods, but reach peak levels in the reproductive period (140-236 nmol/g wet tissue). Moreover, the concentrations of D-Asp in the testis through the sexual cycle positively match the testosterone levels in the gonad and the plasma. The racemase activity evaluated during the cycle expresses its peak when D-Asp and testosterone levels are highest, that is, during the reproductive period, confirming the synthesis of D-Asp from L-Asp by an aspartate racemase. Short-term in vivo experiments consisting of a single injection of D-Asp (2.0 micro mol/g body weight) demonstrated that this amino acid accumulates significantly in the testis, and after 3 h its uptake is coupled with a testosterone increase in both testis and plasma. Moreover, within 18 h of amino acid administration, the D-Asp concentration in the testis decreased along with the testosterone titer to prestimulation levels. Other amino acids (L-Asp, D-Glu and L-Glu) used instead of D-Asp were ineffective, confirming that the significant increase in testicular testosterone was a specific feature of this amino acid. In long-term experiments, D-Asp had been administered chronically to frogs caught during the three phases of the reproductive cycle, inducing testosterone increase and 17beta-estradiol decrease in the gonad during the pre- and post-reproductive period, and vice versa during the reproductive period. The stimulatory effect of D-Asp on testosterone production by the testis is consistent with the stimulation of spermatogenesis and the maturation of thumb pads occurring in D-Asp-treated frogs. In these last animals, there was an increase of seminiferous ampoule area and a higher number of spermatids and sperm. Moreover, in spermatogonia I and II and in spermatocytes, a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) intense immunopositivity was observed. In addition, the thumb pads of D-Asp-treated frogs compared with controls showed a significantly thicker epithelial lining, a wider area of their glands with taller secretion cells, and more numerous, PAS-positive-rich secretions. Finally, these results provide functional evidence for a biologic role of D-Asp in amphibian male steroidogenesis; therefore, this unusual amino acid could be considered a modulatory agent for reproductive processes.
G Tachas, S Lofthouse, C J Wraight, B F Baker, N B Sioufi, R A Jarres, A Berdeja, A M Rao, L M Kerr, E M d’Aniello, and M J Waters
Diabetic retinopathy and acromegaly are diseases associated with excess action of GH and its effector IGF-I, and there is a need for improved therapies. We have designed an optimised 2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-modified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide, ATL 227446, and demonstrated its ability to suppress GH receptor mRNA in vitro. Subcutaneous injections of ATL 227446 reduced GH receptor mRNA levels, GH binding activity and serum IGF-I levels in mice after seven days of dosing. The reduction in serum IGF-I could be sustained for over ten weeks of dosing at therapeutically relevant levels, during which there was also a significant decrease in body weight gain in antisense-treated mice relative to saline and mismatch control-treated mice. The findings indicate that administration of an antisense oligonucleotide to the GH receptor may be applicable to human diseases in which suppression of GH action provides therapeutic benefit.