Recent findings in rats indicated that the physiological consequences of repeated restraint stress are dependent on the time of day of stressor exposure. To investigate whether this is also true for clinically more relevant psychosocial stressors and whether repeated stressor exposure during the light phase or dark phase is more detrimental for an organism, we exposed male C57BL/6 mice to social defeat (SD) across 19 days either in the light phase between Zeitgeber time (ZT)1 and ZT3 (SDL mice) or in the dark phase between ZT13 and ZT15 (SDD mice). While SDL mice showed a prolonged increase in adrenal weight and an attenuated adrenal responsiveness to ACTH in vitro after stressor termination, SDD mice showed reduced dark phase home-cage activity on observation days 7, 14, and 20, flattening of the diurnal corticosterone rhythm, lack of social preference, and higher in vitro IFNγ secretion from mesenteric lymph node cells on day 20/21. Furthermore, the colitis-aggravating effect of SD was more pronounced in SDD than SDL mice following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that repeated SD effects on behavior, physiology, and immunology strongly depend on the time of day of stressor exposure. Whereas physiological parameters were more affected by SD during the light/inactive phase of mice, behavioral and immunological parameters were more affected by SD during the dark phase. Our results imply that repeated daily SD exposure has a more negative outcome when applied during the dark/active phase. By contrast, the minor physiological changes seen in SDL mice might represent beneficial adaptations preventing the formation of those maladaptive consequences.
Manuela S Bartlang, Inga D Neumann, David A Slattery, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Dominik Kraus, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster and Stefan O Reber
C E Koch, M S Bartlang, J T Kiehn, L Lucke, N Naujokat, C Helfrich-Förster, S O Reber and H Oster
In modern societies, the risk of developing a whole array of affective and somatic disorders is associated with the prevalence of frequent psychosocial stress. Therefore, a better understanding of adaptive stress responses and their underlying molecular mechanisms is of high clinical interest. In response to an acute stressor, each organism can either show passive freezing or active fight-or-flight behaviour, with activation of sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis providing the necessary energy for the latter by releasing catecholamines and glucocorticoids (GC). Recent data suggest that stress responses are also regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. In consequence, the timing of stress may critically affect adaptive responses to and/or pathological effects of repetitive stressor exposure. In this article, we characterize the impact of predictable social defeat stress during daytime versus nighttime on bodyweight development and HPA axis activity in mice. While 19 days of social daytime stress led to a transient reduction in bodyweight without altering HPA axis activity at the predicted time of stressor exposure, more detrimental effects were seen in anticipation of nighttime stress. Repeated nighttime stressor exposure led to alterations in food metabolization and reduced HPA axis activity with lower circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and GC concentrations at the time of predicted stressor exposure. Our data reveal a circadian gating of stress adaptation to predictable social defeat stress at the level of the HPA axis with impact on metabolic homeostasis underpinning the importance of timing for the body’s adaptability to repetitive stress.
P T Bosma, S M Kolk, F E M Rebers, O Lescroart, I Roelants, P H G M Willems and R W Schulz
Gonadotrophs are the primary target cells for GnRH in the pituitary. However, during a limited period of neonatal life in the rat, lactotrophs and somatotrophs respond to GnRH as well. Also, in the adults of a number of teleost fishes (e.g. carp, goldfish, and tilapia but not trout), GnRH is a potent GH secretagogue. In studying hypophysiotrophic actions of the two forms of GnRH present in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), chicken GnRH-II ([His5,Trp7,Tyr8]GnRH; cGnRH-II) and catfish GnRH ([His5,Asn8]GnRH; cfGnRH), we have investigated the effects of GnRH on catfish gonadotrophs and somatotrophs. GnRH binding was examined by incubating dispersed pituitary cells attached to coverslips with 125I-labelled [d-Arg6,Trp7,Leu8,Pro9-Net]GnRH (sGnRHa), a salmon GnRH analogue with high affinity for the GnRH receptor. Following fixation and immunohistochemistry using antisera against catfish LH and GH, 125I-labelled sGnRHa was localised autoradiographically and silver grains were quantified on gonadotrophs and somatotrophs. Specific binding of 125I-labelled sGnRHa was restricted to gonadotrophs. Both cfGnRH and cGnRH-II dose-dependently inhibited 125I-labelled sGnRHa binding to gonadotrophs. To substantiate the localisation of functional GnRH receptors, the effects of cfGnRH and cGnRH-II on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined in Fura-2-loaded somatotrophs and gonadotrophs. GnRH-induced increases in [Ca2+]i appeared to be confined to gonadotrophs, in which both endogenous GnRHs caused a single and transient increase in [Ca2+]i. The amplitude of this [Ca2+]i transient depended on the GnRH dose and correlated well with the GnRHs' effect on LH release. In vivo experiments demonstrated that GnRH treatments which markedly elevated plasma LH levels had no effect on plasma GH levels, while a dopamine agonist (apomorphine) significantly elevated plasma GH levels. We conclude that the two endogenous forms of GnRH in the African catfish are not directly involved in the regulation of the release of GH, suggesting that GnRHs cannot be considered as GH secretagogues in teleosts in general.
Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 152, 437–446