Cigarette smoking is known to aggravate Graves' orbitopathy (GO) severity by enhancing adipogenesis. We investigated the effect of quercetin, an antioxidant, on adipocyte differentiation induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in primary cultured orbital fibroblasts (OFs) from GO patients. Freshly prepared CSE was added to the cells and H2O2 was used as a positive control. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and adipogenesis were measured. The expressions of proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α and β, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, were examined during adipogenic differentiation. In result, CSE and H2O2 dose-dependently stimulated intracellular ROS production in normal and Graves' OFs. The effect of 2% CSE was similar to that of 10 μM H2O2; both concentrations were noncytotoxic and were used throughout the experiment. Quercetin pretreatment reduced the ROS generation stimulated by either CSE or H2O2 in preadipocyte OFs. CSE and H2O2 stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured OFs. The addition of quercetin (50 or 100 μM) suppressed adipogenesis. Quercetin also suppressed ROS generation in differentiating OFs during adipogenesis stimulated by CSE and H2O2. Additionally, the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPβ proteins were reduced in the quercetin-treated OFs. Quercetin also reduced the CSE- and H2O2-induced upregulation of ROS and HO-1 protein in differentiated OFs and preadipocyte OFs. As shown in this study, quercetin inhibited adipogenesis by reducing ROS in vitro, supporting the use of quercetin in the treatment of GO.
Jin Sook Yoon, Hyun Jung Lee, Min Kyung Chae, Sang Yeul Lee and Eun Jig Lee
Hyo-Eun Kim, Sung-E Choi, Soo-Jin Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Youn-Jung Lee, Sang Sun Kang, Jaesun Chun and Yup Kang
The present study was undertaken to determine how tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elicits the inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat insulinoma cells (INS)-1 β-cells. TNF-α pretreatment did not change the expression levels of insulin, PDX-1, glucose transporter 2, glucokinase, KATP channels, Ca2 + channels, and exocytotic molecules and, furthermore, did not reduce the glucose-stimulated ATP level. On the other hand, TNF-α reduced the glucose-stimulated influx of Ca2 +. The TNF-α treatment was thought to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-κB inflammatory signals, since TNF-α increased phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 and reduced IκB levels. Inhibitors of these signaling pathways prevented the TNF-α-induced reduction of the Ca2 + influx and GSIS. Overexpression of MEKK3, a possible mediator from the TNF-α receptor to the JNK/p38 and NK-κB signaling cascade, increased the levels of phospho-JNK, phospho-p38, and NF-κB, and reduced the glucose-stimulated Ca2 + influx and GSIS. The reduction of the Ca2 + influx and GSIS in MEKK3-overexpressing INS-1 cells was also prevented by inhibitors of JNK, p38, and NF-κB. These data demonstrate that TNF-α inhibits GSIS by reducing the glucose-stimulated Ca2 + influx, possibly through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK and NF-κB inflammatory signals. Thus, our findings suggest that the activation of stress and inflammatory signals can contribute to the inhibition of GSIS in the development of diabetes.
Seung Jin Han, Sung-E Choi, Sang-A Yi, Soo-Jin Lee, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kwan Woo Lee and Yup Kang
2-Aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) is an activator of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which is a mitochondrial enzyme with an important role in insulin secretion. We investigated the effect of BCH on the high-glucose (HG)-induced reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), the HG/palmitate (PA)-induced reduction in insulin gene expression, and HG/PA-induced β-cell death. We also studied whether long-term treatment with BCH lowers blood glucose and improves β-cell integrity in db/db mice. We evaluated GSIS, insulin gene expression, and DNA fragmentation in INS-1 cells exposed to HG or HG/PA in the presence or absence of BCH. An in vivo study was performed in which 7-week-old diabetic db/db mice were treated with BCH (0.7 g/kg, n=10) and placebo (n=10) every other day for 6 weeks. After treatment, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and immunohistological examinations were performed. Treatment with BCH blocked HG-induced GSIS inhibition and the HG/PA-induced reduction in insulin gene expression in INS-1 cells. In addition, BCH significantly reduced HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death and phospho-JNK level. BCH treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in db/db mice. BCH treatment also increased the ratio of insulin-positive β-cells to total islet area (P<0.05) and reduced the percentage of β-cells expressing cleaved caspase 3 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the GDH activator BCH improved glycemic control in db/db mice. This anti-diabetic effect may be associated with improved insulin secretion, preserved islet architecture, and reduced β-cell apoptosis.
Jin-Bong Lee, Sung-Jin Yoon, Sang-Hyun Lee, Moo-Seung Lee, Haiyoung Jung, Tae-Don Kim, Suk Ran Yoon, Inpyo Choi, Ik-Soo Kim, Su Wol Chung, Hee Gu Lee, Jeong-Ki Min and Young-Jun Park
Healthy expansion of adipose tissue maintains metabolic homeostasis by storing excess chemical energy in increased fat mass. The STAT5-PPAR gamma pathway reportedly regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the diverse groups of steroidal saponins, the major active components of ginseng, which have demonstrated pharmacological properties. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rg3 under pathological conditions in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on glucose level, insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Ginsenoside Rg3 was also applied to the pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 to assess the impact on lipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) size and hepatic steatosis, and the amount of triglycerides (TGs) in both eWAT and liver. Similar to the murine model, Rg3-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed a reduction in lipid accumulation and amount of total TGs. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates the expression of PPAR gamma though STAT5 in vitro and in vivo. According to our results, lipid metabolism-related genes were downregulated in the high-fat mice and 3T3-L1 cell line. Rg3 shows potential for the amelioration of obesity-induced pathology, acting though STAT5-PPAR gamma to facilitate the healthy functioning of adipose tissue. This is the first report of evidence that obesity-induced insulin resistance and lipotoxicity can be treated with ginsenoside Rg3, which acts though the STAT5-PPAR gamma pathway in vivo and in vitro.