Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide produced by intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells and by a discrete population of neurons in the brainstem, which projects mainly to the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of GLP2 are related to the regulation of energy absorption and maintenance of mucosal morphology, function and integrity of the intestine; however, recent experimental data suggest that GLP2 exerts beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, especially in conditions related to increased uptake of energy, such as obesity, at least in the animal model. Indeed, mice lacking GLP2 receptor selectively in hypothalamic neurons that express proopiomelanocortin show impaired postprandial glucose tolerance and hepatic insulin resistance (by increased gluconeogenesis). Moreover, GLP2 acts as a beneficial factor for glucose metabolism in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Thus, the aim of this review is to update and summarize current knowledge about the role of GLP2 in the control of glucose homeostasis and to discuss how this molecule could exert protective effects against the onset of related obesity type 2 diabetes.
Antonella Amato, Sara Baldassano and Flavia Mulè
Sara Baldassano, Anna Lisa Bellanca, Rosa Serio and Flavia Mulè
We investigated the potential anorectic action of peripherally administered glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Mice, fasted for 16 h, were injected i.p. with native GLP2 or [Gly2]GLP2, stable analog of GLP2, before or after GLP2 (3–33), a GLP2 receptor (GLP2R) antagonist, or exendin (9–39), a GLP1R antagonist. Food intake was measured at intervals 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h postinjection. In addition, we tested in lean mice the influence of [Gly2]GLP2 on gastric emptying and the effects of GLP1 alone or in combination with [Gly2]GLP2 on food intake. [Gly2]GLP2 dose dependently and significantly inhibited food intake in lean and DIO mice. The reduction of food intake occurred in the first hour postinjection and it was sustained until 4 h postinjection in lean mice while it was sustained until 2 h postinjection in DIO mice. GLP2 significantly inhibited food intake in both lean and DIO mice but only in the first hour postinjection. The efficiency of [Gly2]GLP2 or GLP2 in suppressing food intake was significantly weaker in DIO mice compared with lean animals. The [Gly2]GLP2 anorectic actions were blocked by the GLP2R antagonist GLP2 (3–33) or by the GLP1R antagonist exendin (9–39). The coadministration of [Gly2]GLP2 and GLP1 did not cause additive effects. [Gly2]GLP2 decreased the gastric emptying rate. Results suggest that GLP2 can reduce food intake in mice in the short term, likely acting at a peripheral level. DIO mice are less sensitive to the anorectic effect of the peptide.
Antonella Amato, Sara Baldassano, Rosa Liotta, Rosa Serio and Flavia Mulè
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) is a naturally occurring peptide secreted by intestinal L-cells. Though its primary function is to serve as an incretin, GLP1 reduces gastrointestinal motility. However, only a handful of animal studies have specifically evaluated the influence of GLP1 on colonic motility. Consequently, the aims of this study were to investigate the effects induced by exogenous GLP1, to analyze the mechanism of action, and to verify the presence of GLP1 receptors (GLP1Rs) in human colon circular muscular strips. Organ bath technique, RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence were used. In human colon, exogenous GLP1 reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the amplitude of the spontaneous contractions without affecting the frequency and the resting basal tone. This inhibitory effect was significantly reduced by exendin (9–39), a GLP1R antagonist, which per se significantly increased the spontaneous mechanical activity. Moreover, it was abolished by tetrodotoxin, a neural blocker, or Nω-nitro-l-arginine – a blocker of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The biomolecular analysis revealed a genic and protein expression of the GLP1R in the human colon. The double-labeling experiments with anti-neurofilament or anti-nNOS showed, for the first time, that immunoreactivity for the GLP1R was expressed in nitrergic neurons of the myenteric plexus. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that GLP1R is expressed in the human colon and, once activated by exogenous GLP1, mediates an inhibitory effect on large intestine motility through NO neural release.
Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato, Francesco Cappello, Francesca Rappa and Flavia Mulè
Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP2) is a key mediator of refeeding-induced and resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth. This study investigated the potential role of GLP2 in mediating the mucosal responses to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). In this view, the murine small intestine adaptive response to a HFD was analyzed and a possible involvement of endogenous GLP2 was verified using GLP2 (3–33) as GLP2 receptor (GLP2R) antagonist. In comparison with animals fed a standard diet, mice fed a HFD for 14 weeks exhibited an increase in crypt–villus mean height (duodenum, 27.5±3.0%; jejunum, 36.5±2.9%; P<0.01), in the cell number per villus (duodenum, 28.4±2.2%; jejunum, 32.0±2.9%; P<0.01), and in Ki67-positive cell number per crypt. No change in the percent of caspase-3-positive cell in the villus–crypt was observed. The chronic exposure to a HFD also caused a significant increase in GLP2 plasma levels and in GLP2R intestinal expression. Daily administration of GLP2 (3–33) (30–60 ng) for 4 weeks did not modify the crypt–villus height in control mice. In HFD-fed mice, chronic treatment with GLP2 (3–33) reduced the increase in crypt–villus height and in the cell number per villus through reduction of cell proliferation and increase in apoptosis. This study provides the first experimental evidence for a role of endogenous GLP2 in the intestinal adaptation to HFD in obese mice and for a dysregulation of the GLP2/GLP2R system after a prolonged HFD.