One of the fundamental questions in endocrinology is how circulating or locally produced hormones affect target cell functions by activating specific receptors linked to numerous signal-transduction pathways. An important subset of G protein-coupled cell-surface receptors can activate phospholipase C enzymes to hydrolyze a small but critically important class of phospholipids, the phosphoinositides. Although this signaling pathway has been extensively explored over the last 20 years, this has proven to be only the tip of the iceberg, and the multiplicity and diversity of the cellular functions controlled by phosphoinositides have surpassed any imagination. Phosphoinositides have been found to be key regulators of ion channels and transporters, and controllers of vesicular trafficking and the transport of lipids between intracellular membranes. Essentially, they organize the recruitment and regulation of signaling protein complexes in specific membrane compartments. While many of these processes have been classically studied by cell biologists, molecular endocrinology cannot ignore these recent advances, and now needs to integrate the cell biologist’s views in the modern concept of how hormones affect cell functions and how derailment of simple molecular events can lead to complex endocrine and metabolic disorders.
A. Spät, I. Balla, T. Balla, E. J. Cragoe Jr, Gy. Hajnóczky and L. Hunyady
Initial 45Ca uptake was measured in isolated rat glomerulosa cells. A small reduction in membrane potential produced by increasing the K+ concentration from 2 to 3·6 mmol/l stimulated 45Ca uptake by about 35%, while a bigger depolarization induced by 18·5 mmol K+/l increased the uptake by about 100%. Since Ca2+ influx was already activated at a calculated membrane potential below −70 mV, and was found to be sensitive to the dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine (1 μmol/l), but insensitive to nickel ions (100 μmol/l), it does not meet the criteria established for T- or L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Exposure of glomerulosa cells to angiotensin II (AII) for 10 min also enhanced the rate of 45Ca influx. The effect of AII was not sensitive to 1 μmol nifedipine/l, but was strongly inhibited by 5-(N-4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(2′,4′-dimethyl)benzamil (CBDMB, 30 μmol/l), an inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ antiporter. These observations suggest that during the sustained phase of stimulation with AII, a CBDMB-sensitive mechanism, rather than dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels, is involved in Ca2+ uptake in rat glomerulosa cells. The bulk Ca2+ influx did not correlate with aldosterone production; however, the maintained activity of different Ca2+ entry mechanisms seems to be essential for AII-induced aldosterone production.
Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 122, 361–370
T. BALLA, K. NAGY, ÉVA TARJÁN, G. RENCZES and A. SPÄT
The present experiments were designed to study the effect of extracellular hyponatraemia on aldosterone secretion. Hyperaldosteronism was induced by peritoneal dialysis with 5% glucose solution in dexamethasone-pretreated rats. In the narrow physiological range of 135–142 mmol/l, as well as in the whole range of the study (122–142 mmol/l), the plasma concentration of sodium showed a close negative correlation with the serum concentration of aldosterone (r = −0·71 and −0·83, respectively). Plasma renin activity increased after peritoneal dialysis; however, no close correlation was observed either between sodium concentration and plasma renin activity or plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone concentration within the dialysed group. The ratio of serum concentration of aldosterone to plasma renin activity showed no considerable change between 132 and 142 mmol/l but rose steeply below 132 mmol sodium/l suggesting that a factor(s) other than angiotensin may also contribute to the induction of hyperaldosteronism.