Resistin has been suggested to induce insulin resistance in obesity and to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. In lactating cows, glucose uptake in the mammary gland is a rate-limiting step in milk synthesis, and to supply glucose to the mammary gland, insulin resistance increases. We examined the expression of the resistin gene by real-time PCR of cDNA in the adipose tIssue and mammary gland of lactating and non-lactating cows. Lactation induced a significant increase of resistin expression in adipose tIssue compared with that in the dry period, and decreased resistin expression in the mammary gland. There were no significant differences in the expression of insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) mRNA between the adipose tIssue of lactating and non-lactating cows, and GLUT4 mRNA was not detected in the mammary gland. The plasma insulin concentration was lower in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows. These results indicate that the pattern of resistin expression in peripheral tIssues is changed in association with milk production. The increase of resistin expression and maintenance of a lower level of plasma insulin concentration may decrease glucose availability by increasing insulin resistance in adipose tIssue. Additionally, our results suggest that the decrease of resistin expression in the mammary gland may influence on the insulin-dependent glucose uptake in mammary epithelial cells during lactation.
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T Komatsu, F Itoh, S Mikawa, and K Hodate
K Katoh, T Komatsu, S Yonekura, H Ishiwata, A Hagino, and Y Obara
The present experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of exogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and growth hormone (GH) on cellular H(+) efflux rate (extracellular acidification rate) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) raised from the mammary gland of a 26-day-pregnant Holstein heifer. Perifusion of 2-day cultured cells with a medium containing ATP (10, 100 and 1000 micromol/l) for 30 min caused a significant and concentration-dependent increase in the cellular H(+) efflux rate. ATP application (100 micromol/l) caused a transient and large increase in [Ca(2+)](c) in all cells. In contrast, perifusion with a medium containing bovine GH at 10, 50 and 250 ng/ml for 30 min caused a significant decrease in the cellular H(+) efflux rate in a concentration-dependent manner. However, bovine GH application (50 ng/ml) caused a small decrease followed by an increase, in some cases, in [Ca(2+)](c). In bMEC treated with lactogenic hormones (1 microgram/l prolactin, 1 nmol/ml dexamethasone and 5 microgram/ml insulin) for 2 days, the increased H(+) efflux rate induced by ATP was significantly reduced, whereas the negative response induced by GH was inversely and significantly changed to the positive. Treatment of the cells with lactogenic hormones reduced the increase in [Ca(2+)](c) induced by ATP stimulation, while it enhanced the increase in [Ca(2+)](c) induced by GH stimulation. Application of ATP or GH did not cause any significant changes in [pH](c). Treatment with lactogenic hormones enhanced GH receptor (GHR) transcription that was determined by RT-PCR. From these results, we conclude that exogenous application of ATP and GH causes prompt and significant responses in H(+) transport and [Ca(2+)](c) that were significantly changed in the opposite direction by the treatment with lactogenic hormones. The lactogenic hormone treatment also enhanced GHR transcription, which may change post-receptor signal transduction systems for both agents in the bMEC.
N Hama, H Itoh, S Suga, Y Komatsu, T Yoshimasa, and K Nakao
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), the third member of natriuretic peptides, has recently been discovered from the porcine brain. Using a polyclonal antiserum to CNP, we demonstrated that CNP-like immunoreactivity (CNP-LI) is present mainly in the central nervous system. Recently, however, we have discovered the production and secretion of CNP in vascular endothelial cells. These observations suggested that CNP may act not only as a neuropeptide but also as a local regulator of vascular tone or growth. In order to further clarify the pathophysiological significance of CNP, we aimed at the preparation of a monoclonal antibody to CNP.
A monoclonal antibody to CNP, KY-CNP-I, has been produced. This monoclonal antibody belongs to the immunogloblin G1 subclass and has high affinity for CNP. Using this monoclonal antibody, we established a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for CNP. The RIA detected CNP-LI in rat brain extracts and culture media conditioned with bovine endothelial cells. In addition, the pretreatment of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells with KY-CNP-I attenuated cyclic GMP production induced by CNP in vitro. The preadministration of KY-CNP-I to rats also attenuated plasma cyclic GMP increase after intravenous injection of CNP in vivo.
These results indicate that this monoclonal antibody is a useful tool to clarify the pathophysiological role of CNP as a neuropeptide and as a local vascular regulator.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 141, 473–479
S Yamada, M Komatsu, T Aizawa, Y Sato, H Yajima, T Yada, S Hashiguchi, K Yamauchi, and K Hashizume
When isolated rat pancreatic islets are treated with 16.7 mM glucose, a time-dependent potentiation (TDP) of insulin release occurs that can be detected by subsequent treatment with 50 mM KCl. It has been thought that TDP by glucose is a Ca2+-dependent phenomenon and only occurs when exposure to glucose is carried out in the presence of Ca2+. In contrast to this, we now demonstrate TDP under stringent Ca2+-free conditions (Ca2+-free buffer containing 1 mM EGTA). In fact, under these Ca2+-free conditions glucose caused an even stronger TDP than in the presence of Ca2+. TDP induced by glucose in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was unaffected by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC). However, cerulenin or tunicamycin, two inhibitors of protein acylation, eradicated TDP without affecting glucose metabolism. The TDP by glucose was not associated with an increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) during subsequent treatment with high K+. Exposure of islets to forskolin under Ca(2+)-free conditions did not cause TDP despite a large increase in the cellular cAMP levels. In conclusion, glucose alone induces TDP under stringent Ca2+-free conditions when [Ca2+]i was significantly lowered. Protein acylation is implicated in the underlying mechanism of TDP.
T Aizawa, T Kaneko, H Yajima, S Yamada, Y Sato, Y Kanda, S Kanda, M Noda, T Kadowaki, M Nagai, K Yamauchi, M Komatsu, and K Hashizume
Oscillation of insulin release by the pancreatic islets was evaluated under stringent Ca(2+)-free conditions for the first time. Isolated single rat islets were exposed to 16.7 mM glucose in the presence of 1.9 mM Ca(2+), or under the stringent Ca(2+)-free conditions (Ca(2+) omission with 1 mM EGTA, 6 microM forskolin and 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Fifteen minutes after the initiation of glucose stimulation, effluent was collected at a 6-s interval, insulin was determined in duplicate by a highly sensitive insulin radioimmunoassay, and oscillation and pulsatility of release statistically analyzed. Significant oscillation of insulin release was observed in all islets irrespective of presence and absence of Ca(2+). Significant pulsatility of release was detected in 7 of 11 islets in the presence of Ca(2+) and three of six isl! ets in the absence of Ca(2+). In conclusion, high glucose elicits oscillatory insulin release both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+).