We investigated the mechanism underlying vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis stimulated by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE1 induced the phosphorylation of both p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and p38 MAP kinase. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, inhibited the PGE1-stimulated VEGF synthesis as well as PGE1-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of the upstream kinase that activates p44/p42 MAP kinase, which reduced the PGE1-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, had little effect on the VEGF synthesis stimulated by PGE1. AH-6809, an antagonist of the subtypes of the PGE receptor, EP1 and EP2, or SC-19220, an antagonist of EP1 receptor, did not inhibit the PGE1-induced VEGF synthesis. H-89, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, reduced the VEGF synthesis induced by PGE1. Cholera toxin, an activator of G(s), and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, induced VEGF synthesis. SB203580 and PD169316, another specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, reduced the cholera toxin-, forskolin- or 8bromo-cAMP-stimulated VEGF synthesis. However, PD98059 failed to affect the VEGF synthesis stimulated by cholera toxin, forskolin or 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8bromo-cAMP). SB203580 reduced the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase induced by forskolin or 8bromo-cAMP. These results strongly suggest that p44/p42 MAP kinase activation is not involved in the PGE1-stimulated VEGF synthesis in osteoblasts but that p38 MAP kinase activation is involved.
H Tokuda, O Kozawa, M Niwa, H Matsuno, K Kato and T Uematsu
We investigated the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the induction of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and HSP70, and the mechanism behind the induction in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE2 time-dependently increased the level of HSP27 without affecting the level of HSP70. PGE2 stimulated the accumulation of HSP27 dose-dependently in the range between 10 nM and 10 microM. PGE2 stimulated the increase in the level of the mRNA for HSP27. Staurosporine and calphostin C, inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), suppressed the PGE2-induced HSP27 accumulation. The effect of PGE2 on HSP27 accumulation was reduced in the PKC down-regulated cells. BAPTA/AM, a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, or TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, reduced the accumulation of HSP27 induced by PGE2. Dibutyryl cAMP had little effect on the basal level of HSP27. PGE2 induced the phosphorylation of both p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and p38 MAP kinase. PD98059 and U-0126, inhibitors of the upstream kinase of p44/p42 MAP kinase, reduced the accumulation of HSP27 induced by PGE2. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, suppressed the HSP27 accumulation induced by PGE2. U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, and calphostin C reduced the PGE2-induced phosphorylation of both p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase. These results indicate that PGE2 stimulates the induction of HSP27 through PKC-dependent activations of both p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts.