Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that has been implicated recently in the regulation of inflammation in immunocytes, and in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in liver, skeletal muscle and adipocytes. However, information in non-rodent models is limited. We have cloned and sequenced the porcine adiponectin open reading frame and evaluated the regulation of adiponectin in vivo following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or E. coli administration. The porcine sequence shares approximately 88, 86, 85 and 83% homology with the dog, human, cow and mouse adiponectin respectively, and 79-83% similarity with dog, human, cow and mouse proteins at the amino acid level, based on the translated porcine sequence and GenBank submissions for the other species. Relative serum adiponectin concentrations were not altered in pigs infused with E. coli, and mRNA expression in adipose tissue was not responsive to LPS. However, analysis of serum from very lean vs a substantially fatter genotype of pig indicated that relative circulating adiponectin concentrations are higher (P<0.01) in the lean pigs than in the fatter genotype, and that the difference is established relatively early in the growth curve. Also, incubating pig adipocytes for 6 h with recombinant pig adiponectin resulted in an approximately 30% reduction (P<0.05) in lipogenesis compared with adipocytes under basal conditions and with those incubated in the presence of insulin. This is the first report in any species that adiponectin antagonizes the incorporation of glucose carbon into lipid in the adipocyte, and provides additional evidence that adiponectin acts as an autocrine regulatory factor to regulate energy metabolism.
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