Ghrelin is synthesized in X/A-like cells of the gastric mucosa, which plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Although ghrelin secretion is known to be induced by neurotransmitters or hormones or by nutrient sensing in the ghrelin-secreting cells themselves, the mechanism of ghrelin secretion is not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that changing the extracellular glucose concentration from elevated (25 mM) to optimal (10 mM) caused an increase in the intracellular Ca2 + concentration ([Ca2 +]i) in ghrelin-secreting mouse ghrelinoma 3-1 (MGN3-1) cells (n=32, P<0.01), whereas changing the glucose concentration from elevated to lowered (5 or 1 mM) had little effect on [Ca2 +]i increase. Overexpression of a closed form of an ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel mutant suppressed the 10 mM glucose-induced [Ca2 +]i increase (n=8, P<0.01) and exocytotic events (n=6, P<0.01). We also found that a low concentration of a KATP channel opener, diazoxide, with 25 mM glucose induced [Ca2 +]i increase (n=23, P<0.01) and ghrelin secretion (n≥3, P<0.05). In contrast, the application of a low concentration of a KATP channel blocker, tolbutamide, significantly induced [Ca2 +]i increase (n=15, P<0.01) and ghrelin secretion (n≥3, P<0.05) under 5 mM glucose. Furthermore, the application of voltage-dependent Ca2 + channel inhibitors suppressed the 10 mM glucose-induced [Ca2 +]i increase (n≥26, P<0.01) and ghrelin secretion (n≥5, P<0.05). These findings suggest that KATP and voltage-dependent Ca2 + channels are involved in glucose-dependent ghrelin secretion in MGN3-1 cells.
Manami Oya, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Kazuki Harada, Rika Numano, Takahiro Sato, Masayasu Kojima, and Takashi Tsuboi
Hiroharu Mifune, Yuji Tajiri, Yusuke Sakai, Yukie Kawahara, Kento Hara, Takahiro Sato, Yoshihiro Nishi, Akinori Nishi, Ryouichi Mitsuzono, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, and Masayasu Kojima
We previously reported that voluntary exercise contributed to the amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior with a concomitant restoration of ghrelin production in a rat model of obesity, suggesting a possible relationship between exercise and appetite-regulating hormones. Ghrelin is known to be involved in the brain reward circuits via dopamine neurons related to motivational properties. We investigated the relevance of ghrelin as an initiator of voluntary exercise as well as feeding behavior. The plasma ghrelin concentration fluctuates throughout the day with its peak at the beginning of the dark period in the wild-type (WT) mice with voluntary exercise. Although predominant increases in wheel running activity were observed accordant to the peak of plasma ghrelin concentration in the WT mice, those were severely attenuated in the ghrelin-knockout (GKO) mice under either ad libitum or time-restricted feeding. A single injection of ghrelin receptor agonist brought about and reproduced a marked enhancement of wheel running activity, in contrast to no effect by the continuous administration of the same drug. Brain dopamine levels (DAs) were enhanced after food consumption in the WT mice under voluntary exercise. Although the acceleration of DAs were apparently blunted in the GKO mice, they were dramatically revived after the administration of ghrelin receptor agonist, suggesting the relevance of ghrelin in the reward circuit under voluntary exercise. These findings emphasize that the surge of ghrelin plays a crucial role in the formation of motivation for the initiation of voluntary exercise possibly related to the central dopamine system.
Kanta Kon, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Hisakatsu Ito, Yoshinori Takemura, Kiyofumi Sato, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Assaf Rudich, Takahiro Maeda, Tsutomu Wada, and Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Disrupted sleep is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Central actions of orexin, mediated by orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors, play a crucial role in the maintenance of wakefulness; accordingly, excessive activation of the orexin system causes insomnia. Resting-phase administration of dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) has been shown to improve sleep abnormalities and glucose intolerance in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, although the mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, to investigate the presence of functional link between sleep and glucose metabolism, the influences of orexin antagonists with or without sleep-promoting effects were compared on glucose metabolism in diabetic mice. In db/db mice, 2-SORA-MK1064 (an orexin-2 receptor antagonist) and DORA-12 (a DORA) acutely improved non-rapid eye movement sleep, whereas 1-SORA-1 (an orexin-1 receptor antagonist) had no effect. Chronic resting-phase administration of these drugs improved glucose intolerance, without affecting body weight, food intake, locomotor activity and energy expenditure calculated from O2 consumption and CO2 production. The expression levels of proinflammatory factors in the liver were reduced by 2-SORA-MK1064 and DORA-12, but not 1-SORA-1, whereas those in the white adipose tissue were reduced by 1-SORA-1 and DORA-12 more efficiently than 2-SORA-MK1064. When administered chronically at awake phase, these drugs caused no effect. In streptozotocin-induced type 1-like diabetic mice, neither abnormality in sleep–wake behavior nor improvement of glucose intolerance by these drugs were observed. These results suggest that both 1-SORA-type (sleep-independent) and 2-SORA-type (possibly sleep-dependent) mechanisms can provide chronotherapeutic effects against type 2 diabetes associated with sleep disturbances in db/db mice.