Aldosterone, which plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, is produced by zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex. Exaggerated overproduction of aldosterone from ZG cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. In ZG cells, calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels plays a central role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. Previous studies in animal adrenals and human adrenal adrenocortical cell lines suggest that the T-type but not the L-type calcium channel activity drives aldosterone production. However, recent clinical studies show that somatic mutations in L-type calcium channels are the second most prevalent cause of aldosterone-producing adenoma. Our objective was to define the roles of T and L-type calcium channels in regulating aldosterone secretion from human adrenals. We find that human adrenal ZG cells mainly express T-type CaV3.2/3.3 and L-type CaV1.2/1.3 calcium channels. TTA-P2, a specific inhibitor of T-type calcium channel subtypes, reduced basal aldosterone secretion from acutely prepared slices of human adrenals. Surprisingly, nifedipine, the prototypic inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, also decreased basal aldosterone secretion, suggesting that L-type calcium channels are active under basal conditions. In addition, TTA-P2 or nifedipine also inhibited aldosterone secretion stimulated by angiotensin II- or elevations in extracellular K+. Remarkably, blockade of either L- or T-type calcium channels inhibits basal and stimulated aldosterone production to a similar extent. Low concentrations of TTA-P2 and nifedipine showed additive inhibitory effect on aldosterone secretion. We conclude that T- and L-type calcium channels play equally important roles in controlling aldosterone production from human adrenals.
Tingting Yang, Min He, Hailiang Zhang, Paula Q Barrett, and Changlong Hu
Lu Fu, Hongyuan Zhang, Jeremiah Ong’achwa Machuki, Tingting Zhang, Lin Han, Lili Sang, Lijuan Wu, Zhiwei Zhao, Matthew James Turley, Xide Hu, Hongjian Hou, Dongye Li, Sian E Harding, and Hong Sun
Currently, there are no conventional treatments for stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCM, also known as Takotsubo syndrome), and the existing therapies are not effective. The recently discovered G protein- coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) executes the rapid effects of estrogen (E2). In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of GPER on epinephrine (Epi)-induced cardiac stress. SCM was developed with a high dose of Epi in adult rats and human-induced pluripotent stem cells–derived cardiomyocytes(hiPSC-CMs). (1) GPER activation with agonist G1/ E2 prevented an increase in left ventricular internal diameter at end-systole, the decrease both in ejection fraction and cardiomyocyte shortening amplitude elicited by Epi. (2) G1/ E2 mitigated heart injury induced by Epi, as revealed by reduced plasma brain natriuretic peptide and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture supernatant. (3) G1/E2 prevented the raised phosphorylation and internalization of β2-adrenergic receptors（β2AR）. (4) Blocking Gαi abolished the cardiomyocyte contractile inhibition by Epi. G1/E2 downregulated Gαi activity of cardiomyocytes and further upregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration in culture supernatant treated with Epi. (5) G1/E2 rescued decreased Ca2+ amplitude and Ca2+ channel current (ICa-L) in rat cardiomyocytes. Notably, the above effects of E2 were blocked by the GPER antagonist, G15. In hiPSC-CM (which expressed GPER, β1AR and β2ARs), knockdown of GPER by siRNA abolished E2 effects on increasing ICa-L and action potential duration in the stress state. In conclusion, GPER played a protective role against SCM. Mechanistically, this effect was mediated by balancing the coupling of β2AR to the Gαs and Gαi signalling pathways.
Yang Chen, Mingyue Zhao, Chenhao Wang, Huaizhen Wen, Yuntao Zhang, Mingxu Lu, Salah Adlat, Tingting Zheng, Mingjiao Zhang, Dan Li, Xiaodan Lu, Mengwei Guo, Hongyu Chen, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng, and Yaowu Zheng
Excessive fat accumulation causes obesity and many diseases. Previous study demonstrates VEGFB universal knockout induces obese phenotypes including expansion of white adipose tissue, whitening of brown adipose tissue, increase of fat accumulation and reduction in energy consumption. However, roles of VEGFB in adipose tissues are not clear. In this study, we have generated a mouse model with adipose-specific VEGFB repression using CRISPR/dCas9 system (Vegfb AdipoDown) and investigated the roles of VEGFB in adipose development and energy metabolism. VEGFB repression induced significant changes in adipose tissue structure and function. Vegfb AdipoDown mice have larger body sizes, larger volume of white adipose tissues than its wild type littermates. Adipose-specific VEGFB repression induced morphological and functional transformation of adipose tissues toward white adipose for energy storage. Metabolic processes are broadly changed in Vegfb AdipoDown adipose tissues including carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and amino acid metabolism. We have demonstrated that adipose VEGFB repression can recapitulate most of the phenotypes of the whole body VEGFB knockout mouse. Intriguingly, approximately 50% VEGFB repression in adipose tissues can almost completely mimic the effects of universal Vegfb deletion, suggesting adipose VEGFB is a major regulator of energy metabolism and may be important in prevention and treatment of obesity.