Insulin resistance is the decreased ability of insulin to mediate metabolic actions. In the ovary, insulin controls ovulation and oocyte quality. Alterations in ovarian insulin signaling pathway could compromise ovarian physiology. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of fetal programming on ovarian insulin signaling and evaluate the effect of metformin treatment. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone and female offspring born to those dams were employed; at adulthood, prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) offspring presented two phenotypes: irregular ovulatory (PHiov) and anovulatory (PHanov). Half of each group was orally treated with metformin. Metformin treatment improved the estrous cyclicity in both PH groups. Both PH groups showed low mRNA levels of Ir, Irs1 and Glut4. Irs2 was decreased only in PHanov. Metformin upregulated the mRNA levels of some of the mediators studied. Protein expression of IR, IRS1/2 and GLUT4 was decreased in both PH groups. In PHiov, metformin restored the expression of all the mediators, whereas in PHanov, metformin restored only that of IR and IRS1/2. IRS1 phosphorylation was measured in tyrosine residues, which activates the pathway, and in serine residues, which impairs insulin action. PHiov presented high IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine and serine residues, whereas PHanov showed high serine phosphorylation and low tyrosine phosphorylation. Metformin treatment lowered serine phosphorylation only in PHanov rats. Our results suggest that PHanov rats have a defective insulin action, partially restored with metformin. PHiov rats had less severe alterations, and metformin treatment was more effective in this phenotype.
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María Florencia Heber, Silvana Rocío Ferreira, Giselle Adriana Abruzzese, Raíces Trinidad, Omar P Pignataro, Margarita Vega, and Alicia B Motta
Adriana María Belén Abiuso, María Luisa Varela, Trinidad Raices, Griselda Irusta, Juan Manuel Lazzati, Marcos Besio Moreno, Alina Cavallotti, Alicia Belgorosky, Omar Pedro Pignataro, Esperanza Berensztein, and Carolina Mondillo
Recent reports indicate an increase in Leydig cell tumor (LCT) incidence. Radical orchiectomy is the standard therapy in children and adults, although it entails physical and psychosocial side effects. Testis-sparing surgery can be a consideration for benign LCT of 2.5 cm or less in size. Malignant LCTs respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, so new treatment modalities are needed. In this study, we observed increased histidine decarboxylase expression and pro-angiogenic potential in LCT surgically resected from pediatric patients (fetal to pubertal) vs control samples from patients without endocrine or metabolic disorders which were collected at necropsy. We, therefore, evaluated for the first time the antitumor efficacy of two histidine decarboxylase inhibitors (α-methyl-dl-histidine dihydrochloride (α-MHD) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)), alone and combined with carboplatin, in two preclinical models of LCT. MA-10 and R2C Leydig tumor cells, representing two different LCT subtypes, were used to generate syngeneic and xenograft mouse LCT models, respectively. In the syngeneic model, monotherapy with α-MHD effectively reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. In the xenografts, which showed co-expression of histidine decarboxylase and CYP19, the combination of EGCG plus carboplatin was the most effective therapy, leading to LCT growth arrest and undetectable levels of plasmatic estradiol. Testicular and body weights remained unaltered. On the basis of this study, histidine decarboxylase may emerge as a novel pharmacological target for LCT treatment.