A decrease in serum estrogen levels in menopause is closely associated with the development of visceral obesity and the onset of type 2 diabetes in women. In the present study, we demonstrated the therapeutic effects of the novel DPP4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, on the features of postmenopausal obesity in mice. In the control group, female C57BL/6 mice were sham-operated and maintained on a standard diet. In the postmenopausal obese group, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were maintained on a high-fat diet, and were referred to as OVX-HF. In the treated group, teneligliptin at 60 mg/kg per day was administrated to OVX-HF, and were referred to as Tene. After a 12-week food challenge, the metabolic phenotypes of these mice were analyzed. Body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose intolerance were greater in OVX-HF than in control, while these abnormalities were markedly improved without alterations in calorie intake in Tene. Teneligliptin effectively ameliorated the characteristics of metabolic abnormalities associated with postmenopausal obesity. Regarding chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue, the numbers of F4/80+CD11c+CD206− M1-macrophages in flow cytometry, crown-like structure formation in immunohistochemistry, and proinflammatory cytokine expression were significantly attenuated in Tene. Hepatic steatosis was also markedly improved. Furthermore, decreased energy consumption in the dark and light phases, reduced locomotor activity in the dark phase, and lowered core body temperature in OVX-HF were ameliorated in Tene. Since obesity and reduced energy metabolism are a common physiology of menopause, teneligliptin appears to be beneficial as a treatment for type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal obesity.
Azusa Sameshima, Tsutomu Wada, Tetsuo Ito, Ayaka Kashimura, Kanae Sawakawa, Rika Yonezawa, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Shigeru Saito and Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Tsutomu Wada, Akari Ishikawa, Eri Watanabe, Yuto Nakamura, Yusuke Aruga, Hayate Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Onogi, Hiroe Honda, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Daisuke Koya, Hiroshi Tsuneki and Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Obesity-associated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance; however, influences of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibition remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of MR inhibition using eplerenone, a selective MR antagonist, in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Eplerenone prevented excessive body weight gain and fat accumulation, ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and enhanced energy metabolism. In the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), eplerenone prevented obesity-induced accumulation of F4/80+CD11c+CD206−-M1-adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) and reduction of F4/80+CD11c−CD206+-M2-ATM. Interestingly, M1-macrophage exhibited lower expression levels of MR, compared with M2-macrophage, in the ATM of eWAT and in vitro-polarized bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Importantly, eplerenone and MR knockdown attenuated the increase in the expression levels of proIl1b, Il6 and Tnfa, in the eWAT and liver of HFD-fed mice and LPS-stimulated BMDM. Moreover, eplerenone suppressed IL1b secretion from eWAT of HFD-fed mice. To reveal the anti-inflammatory mechanism, we investigated the involvement of NLRP3-inflammasome activation, a key process of IL1b overproduction. Eplerenone suppressed the expression of the inflammasome components, Nlrp3 and Caspase1, in the eWAT and liver. Concerning the second triggering factors, ROS production and ATP- and nigericin-induced IL1b secretion were suppressed by eplerenone in the LPS-primed BMDM. These results indicate that eplerenone inhibited both the priming and triggering signals that promote NLRP3-inflammasome activation. Therefore, we consider MR to be a crucial target to prevent metabolic disorders by suppressing inflammasome-mediated chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue and liver under obese conditions.