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Katherine A Staines, Vicky E MacRae and Colin Farquharson

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Katherine A Staines, Vicky E MacRae and Colin Farquharson

The small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family consists of osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein. These proteins share many structural characteristics and are primarily located in bone and dentin. Accumulating evidence has implicated the SIBLING proteins in matrix mineralisation. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the individual role that each of the SIBLING proteins has in this highly orchestrated process. In particular, we emphasise how the nature and extent of their proteolytic processing and post-translational modification affect their functional role. Finally, we describe the likely roles of the SIBLING proteins in clinical disorders of hypophosphataemia and their potential therapeutic use.

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Fiona Roberts, Greg Markby, Scott Dillon, Colin Farquharson and Vicky E MacRae

The physiological mineralisation of skeletal tissues, as well as the pathological mineralisation of soft tissues involves a fine balance between regulators that either promote or inhibit the process. In recent years, several studies have advocated a non-skeletal role for some of these mineralisation regulators in a range of human diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. This is an emerging area of interest and the functional roles and mechanisms of action of these various endocrine factors, phosphatases and phosphodiesterase’s in important pathologies are the focus of this review. Mechanistic insight of the pathways through which these acknowledged regulators of skeletal mineralisation act beyond the skeleton has the potential to identify druggable targets for commonly experienced morbidities, notably those related to metabolism and metabolic syndrome.

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Karla J Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nik M Morton, Vicky E MacRae and William P Cawthorn

Throughout the last decade, significant developments in cellular, molecular and mouse models have revealed major endocrine functions of the skeleton. More recent studies have evolved the interplay between bone-specific hormones, the skeleton, marrow adipose tissue, muscle and the brain. This review focuses on literature from the last decade, addressing the endocrine regulation of global energy metabolism via the skeleton. In addition, we will highlight several recent studies that further our knowledge of new endocrine functions of some organs; explore remaining unanswered questions; and, finally, we will discuss future directions for this more complex era of bone biology research.