Obese-insulin resistance following chronic high-fat diet consumption led to cognitive decline through several mechanisms. Moreover, sex hormone deprivation, including estrogen and testosterone, could be a causative factor in inducing cognitive decline. However, comparative studies on the effects of hormone deprivation on the brain are still lacking. Adult Wistar rats from both genders were operated upon (sham operations or orchiectomies/ovariectomies) and given a normal diet or high-fat diet for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Blood was collected to determine the metabolic parameters. At the end of the experiments, rats were decapitated and their brains were collected to determine brain mitochondrial function, brain oxidative stress, hippocampal plasticity, insulin-induced long-term depression, dendritic spine density and cognition. We found that male and female rats fed a high-fat diet developed obese-insulin resistance by week 8 and brain defects via elevated brain oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin-induced long-term depression, hippocampal dysplasticity, reduced dendritic spine density and cognitive decline by week 12. In normal diet-fed rats, estrogen deprivation, not testosterone deprivation, induced obese-insulin resistance, oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin-induced long-term depression, hippocampal dysplasticity and reduced dendritic spine density. In high-fat–diet-fed rats, estrogen deprivation, not testosterone deprivation, accelerated and aggravated obese-insulin resistance and brain defects at week 8. In conclusion, estrogen deprivation aggravates brain dysfunction more than testosterone deprivation through increased oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin-induced long-term depression and dendritic spine reduction. These findings may explain clinical reports which show more severe cognitive decline in aging females than males with obese-insulin resistance.
Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Hiranya Pintana, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Chiraphat Boonnag, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Hiranya Pintana, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn C Chattipakorn
It is unclear whether the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor can counteract brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived obese rats. We hypothesized that DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats received either a sham-operated (S, n=6) or bilateral orchiectomy (ORX, n=24). ORX rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a normal diet (ND (NDO)) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n=6/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle or vildagliptin (3 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 4 weeks. After treatment, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and brain mitochondrial function were determined in each rat. We found that HFO rats exhibited peripheral and brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline. NDO rats did not develop peripheral and brain insulin resistance. However, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline occurred. Vildagliptin significantly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, restored brain insulin sensitivity and decreased brain mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in HFO rats. However, vildagliptin did not restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in both NDO and HFO rats. These findings suggest that vildagliptin could not counteract the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived subjects, despite its effects on improved peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity as well as brain mitochondrial function.
Apiwan Arinno, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Puntarik Kaewthep, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Although a physiological dose of testosterone replacement therapy (p-TRT) has been shown to improve left ventricular (LV) function, some studies reported that it increased the risk of myocardial infarction in testosterone-deprived men. We previously reported that vildagliptin might be used as an alternative to p-TRT. In this study, we hypothesized that a combined low-dose TRT with vildagliptin exerts greater efficacy than single regimen in improving cardiometabolic function in obese, insulin-resistant rats with testosterone deprivation. Male rats were fed on a normal diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Then, they were divided into two subgroups, sham operation and orchiectomy (normal diet rats with orchiectomy (NDO), high-fat diet rats with orchiectomy (HFO)) and fed their diets for another 12 weeks. At week 25, orchiectomized rats were subdivided into four groups: vehicle, p-TRT, vildagliptin and combined drugs. At week 29, cardiometabolic and biochemical parameters were determined. HFO rats had obese insulin resistance with a worse LV dysfunction, compared with sham. Vildagliptin and combined drugs effectively reduced insulin resistance. All treatments reduced blood pressure, cardiac autonomic imbalance, LV dysfunction, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and increased mitochondrial fusion in NDO and HFO rats. However, p-TRT and combined drugs, but not vildagliptin, reduced mitochondrial fission in NDO and HFO rats. We concluded that combined low-dose TRT with vildagliptin mitigated LV function at a similar level to the p-TRT alone and vildagliptin via improving mitochondrial fusion, reducing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in testosterone-deprived rats. Our findings suggest that low-dose TRT combined with vildagliptin may be an alternative for p-TRT in conditions of obese insulin resistance with testosterone deprivation.
Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Siripong Palee, Kenneth Chattipakorn, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn
Myocardial damage and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are intensified by endogenous estrogen deprivation. Although N-acetylcysteine (NAC) exerted cardioprotective effects, its benefits when used in combination with hormone therapy are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of NAC with low-dose estrogen improves cardiometabolic function and protects cardiac mitochondria against I/R injury, to a similar extent to regular-dose estrogen treatment, in estrogen-deprived rats. Female Wistar rats had a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation. Twelve weeks after the operation, OVX rats were treated with regular-dose estrogen (E; 50 µg/kg/day), low-dose estrogen (e; 25 µg/kg/day), NAC (N; 100 mg/kg/day) or combined low-dose estradiol with NAC (eN) for 4 weeks (n = 6/group). Metabolic parameters, echocardiography, heart rate variability and then cardiac I/R protocol involving 30-min coronary artery ligation, followed by 120-min reperfusion, were performed. OVX rats had increased body weight, visceral fat, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR index, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels (P < 0.05 vs sham). Only OVX-E and OVX-eN had a similarly improved HOMA-IR index. LVEF was increased in all treatment groups, but HRV was restored only by OVX-E and OVX-eN. After I/R, myocardial infarct size was decreased in both OVX-E and OVX-eN groups. OVX-E and OVX-eN rats similarly had a reduced mitochondrial ROS level and increased mitochondrial membrane potential in the ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, combined NAC with low-dose estrogen and regular-dose estrogen therapy similarly improve cardiometabolic function, prevent cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces the infarct size in estrogen-deprived rats with cardiac I/R injury.