Regulation of the physiological processes of endochondral bone formation during long bone growth is controlled by various factors including the hormones estrogen and leptin. The effects of estrogen are mediated not only through the direct activity of estrogen receptors (ERs) but also through cross talk with other signaling systems implicated in chondrogenesis. The receptors of both estrogen and leptin (OBR (LEPR)) are detectable in growth plate chondrocytes of all zones. In this study, the expression of mRNA and protein of OBR in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells and the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) stimulation were assessed using quantitative PCR and western blotting. We have found that the mRNA of Obr was dynamically expressed during the differentiation of ATDC5 cells over 21 days. Application of E2 (10−7 M) at day 14 for 48 h significantly upregulated OBR mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). The upregulation of Obr mRNA by E2 was shown to take place in a concentration-dependent manner, with a concentration of 10−7 M E2 having the greatest effect. Furthermore, we have confirmed that E2 affected the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) in a time-dependent manner where a maximal fourfold change was observed at 10 min following application of E2. Finally, pretreatment of the cells with either U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) or ICI 182 780 (ER antagonist) blocked the upregulation of OBR by E2 and prevented the E2-induced phosphorylation of ERK. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of cross talk between estrogen and OBR in the regulation of bone growth whereby estrogen regulates the expression of Obr in growth plate chondrocytes via ERs and the activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
Shan-Jin Wang, Xin-Feng Li, Lei-Sheng Jiang, and Li-Yang Dai
Lin-Yu Jin, Zhen-Dong Lv, Xin-Jin Su, Shuai Xu, Hai-Ying Liu, and Xin-Feng Li
Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate the development of the growth plate (GP) by binding to estrogen, a phenomenon that determines the growth of skeletal bone. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of ERs on axial and appendicular growth plates during puberty remain unclear. In the present study, the strategy of ERβ blocking resulted in increased longitudinal elongation of the appendicular bone (P < 0.01), whereas ERα blocking suppressed appendicular elongation (P < 0.05). Blocking both ERs did not have opposite effects on axial longitudinal growth. The expression of chondrocyte proliferation genes including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox9 and hypertrophic marker genes including collagen X, MMP13, and Runx2 was significantly increased in the growth plate of female mice treated with ERβ antagonist compared with that in the GP of control mice (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in local insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression among these groups (P > 0.05), and Indian hedgehog protein (Ihh) and parathyroid-related protein (PTHrP) expressions differed among these groups (P < 0.05). ERs appeared not to affect axial bone growth during puberty in female mice (P > 0.05). Our data show that the blocking of different ER subtypes might have a region-specific influence on longitudinal appendicular and axial growth.
Min Hu, Yuehui Zhang, Jiaxing Feng, Xue Xu, Jiao Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xiaozhu Guo, Juan Li, Edvin Vestin, Peng Cui, Xin Li, Xiao-ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Linus R Shao, and Håkan Billig
Impaired progesterone (P4) signaling is linked to endometrial dysfunction and infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we report for the first time that elevated expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms A and B parallels increased estrogen receptor (ER) expression in PCOS-like rat uteri. The aberrant PGR-targeted gene expression in PCOS-like rats before and after implantation overlaps with dysregulated expression of Fkbp52 and Ncoa2, two genes that contribute to the development of uterine P4 resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies of the effects of metformin on the regulation of the uterine P4 signaling pathway under PCOS conditions showed that metformin directly inhibits the expression of PGR and ER along with the regulation of several genes that are targeted dependently or independently of PGR-mediated uterine implantation. Functionally, metformin treatment corrected the abnormal expression of cell-specific PGR and ER and some PGR-target genes in PCOS-like rats with implantation. Additionally, we documented how metformin contributes to the regulation of the PGR-associated MAPK/ERK/p38 signaling pathway in the PCOS-like rat uterus. Our data provide novel insights into how metformin therapy regulates uterine P4 signaling molecules under PCOS conditions.