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T Matsumoto, S E Gargosky, Y Oh and R G Rosenfeld


The aim of this study was to assess the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) by IGFs in primary cultures of rat articular chondrocytes (RAC). Employing Western ligand blotting, immunoprecipitation and Northern blot analysis, RAC were found to secrete IGFBP-5 (29 kDa) and IGFBP-4 (24 kDa) as the predominant IGFBPs, as well as IGFBP-2 (32–30 kDa) and IGFBP-3 (43–39 kDa) as the minor species. Treatment of cells with IGF-I and IGF-II resulted in a dose-dependent increase of IGFBP-5 and a small increase in IGFBP-4 in conditioned media (CM). Des(1–3) IGF-I and [Gln6, Ala7,Tyr18, Leu19] IGF-II ([QAYL] IGF-II), which bind to the type 1 IGF receptor but not to IGFBPs, also induced IGFBP-5 peptide, although the increase was less than with IGF-I or IGF-II treatment of RAC. [Leu27] IGF-II, which does not bind to the type 1 IGF receptor but binds to IGFBPs, resulted in little induction of IGFBP-5, while [QAYL-Leu27] IGF-II, which has reduced affinity for both the type 1 IGF receptor and IGFBPs, did not increase IGFBP-5. These data suggest that the increase in IGFBP-5 in CM is modulated by both the type 1 IGF receptor and the interaction between IGFs and IGFBPs. Northern blotting analysis showed that IGF-I, IGF-II and des(1–3) IGF-I treatment of RAC increased steady state levels of IGFBP-5 mRNA, suggesting that the IGF-mediated increase in IGFBP-5 is transcriptionally modulated. Interestingly, the increase in IGFBP-5 peptide levels and mRNA were not parallel, suggesting the possibility of post-translational modifications of IGFBP-5, such as those seen with IGFBP-5 protease. IGFBP-5 protease activity was detectable in untreated CM, whereas treatment with IGF-I and IGF-II partially protected IGFBP-5 from proteolysis. In summary, treatment of RAC with IGF-I and IGF-II results in dose-dependent increases in both IGFBP-5 peptide in the CM and mRNA levels. These changes are mediated by interactions via the type 1 IGF receptor as well as IGFBPs, both transcriptionally and post-translationally.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 148, 355–369

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J Tsubaki, WK Choi, AR Ingermann, SM Twigg, HS Kim, RG Rosenfeld and Y Oh

Dietary factors play an important role in both the development and prevention of human cancers, including breast carcinoma. One dietary micronutrient, sodium butyrate (NaB), is a major end product of dietary starch and fiber, produced naturally during digestion by anaerobic bacteria in the cecum and colon. NaB is a potent growth inhibitor and initiates cell differentiation for many cell types in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of NaB on three human mammary epithelial cells and regulation of the IGF axis, specifically, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a known growth regulator in human mammary cells, and IGFBP-related protein 2 (IGFBP-rP2)/connective tissue growth factor. NaB inhibited DNA synthesis, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, in estrogen-responsive (MCF-7) and estrogen-non-responsive (Hs578T) breast cancer cells, and normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to a similar degree (up to 90% inhibition at 1-10 mM concentrations). Treatment of cells with NaB induced histone hyperacetylation, suggesting that NaB exerts its biological effects, at least in part, as a histone deacetylase inhibitor in mammary epithelial cells. Treatment of Hs578T cells with NaB caused an induction of apoptotic cell death. NaB treatment resulted in increased levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1) mRNA and protein in Hs578T cells and distinct upregulation of p27(Kip1) in HMEC, suggesting that NaB activates different genes involved in cell cycle arrest, depending upon the cell type. In the same context, among the IGFBP superfamily members tested, NaB specifically upregulated the expression of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-rP2. These two proteins are known to be involved in inhibition of mammary epithelial cell replication. Northern blot analysis showed that NaB treatment at 1-10 mM concentrations caused a dose-dependent stimulation of IGFBP-3 mRNA expression in cancerous cells and IGFBP-rP2 mRNA expression in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Protein data from Western ligand blot and immunoblot analyses demonstrated parallel results. In summary, we have demonstrated that NaB (i) uniformly suppresses DNA synthesis in both cancerous and non-cancerous mammary cells, and (ii) upregulates IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-rP2 mRNA and protein levels in cancerous and non-cancerous mammary cells. These results provide the first demonstration that butyrate regulates the IGFBP system in the human mammary system.