In cultured porcine and human thyroid cells, electrophysiological and morphological studies showed that cultivation in the presence of TSH, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) maintained normal cell polarity with iodine incorporation and organification. Cells cultivated in the absence of these substances had inverted cell polarity and lacked iodide incorporation.
In the presence of TSH, PGE2 or dbcAMP, the thyroid cells formed follicles with normal cell polarity and the microvilli pointed toward the follicle lumina. Intracellular resting potentials were − 60 mV and the electrical potentials in the follicle lumina were negative at − 20 mV. The transmembrane potential differences (p.d.) between the follicle lumina and the epithelial cells were − 40 mV and those between the epithelial cells and the culture media − 60 mV.
In the absence of TSH, PGE2 or dbcAMP, the thyroid cells formed 'domes' or hollow spheres with inverted cell polarity and the microvilli pointed toward the culture media. Intracellular resting potentials were − 40 mV, being less negative than those in the presence of TSH, PGE2 or dbcAMP. The electrical potentials in the 'dome' or hollow sphere cavities were positive at + 19 mV. The transmembrane p.d. between the culture media and the epithelial cells was − 40 mV and that between the epithelial cells and the cavities − 60 mV, indicating that electrophysiologically the cell polarity was inverted in the absence of TSH, PGE2 or dbcAMP.
No significant differences in electrophysiology and iodine metabolism were observed between normal and Graves' human thyroid cells in culture.
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) is a potent tumour promoter and shows several biological activities of epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF and TPA stimulated proliferation and inhibited differentiation of porcine thyroid cells in primary culture. They also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation and inhibited an early step in thyroid hormone synthesis (iodine organification). The results indicate that EGF and TPA switch the developmental course of porcine thyroid cells from differentiation to proliferation.
Thyrotrophin (TSH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), calmodulin levels and cAMP phosphodiesterase activity in cultured porcine thyroid cells. Dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), a stable analogue of cAMP, increased calmodulin levels and cAMP phosphodiesterase activity. These results indicate that TSH- and PGE2-stimulated increases in calmodulin are mediated by cAMP. This increased concentration of calmodulin in turn stimulates cAMP phosphodiesterase. Double reciprocal plots of cAMP hydrolysis yielded two apparent Michaelis constants (Km); the lower in the 1 μmol/l and the higher in the 10 μmol/l range. Thyrotrophin, PGE2 and dbcAMP increased the values of maximal velocity without changing the Km values.
Evidence is accumulating that adrenal steroids may be involved in the metabolic effects of cytokines. We evaluated the possible involvement of glucocorticoids in the inhibition of pancreatic insulin secretion by interleukin-1β (IL-1β), one of the cytokines produced by inflammatory cells. In the first group of experiments, adrenalectomized rats showed a significant reduction in basal and glucose (0·5 g/kg, i.v.)-stimulated immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels after injection of IL-1β (1·0 μg/kg), but intact rats did not. Pretreatment with IL-1β increased plasma glucose levels 2 and 15 min after an i.v. bolus of glucose in adrenalectomized rats. In the second group of experiments, dexamethasone supplement (0·1 mg/kg) given to adrenalectomized rats cancelled the reduction in plasma glucose levels by IL-1β, and rats treated with 1·0 mg dexamethasone/kg showed a significant increase in basal IRI levels and enhanced serum IRI levels after IL-1β injection. However, 1·0 mg deoxycorticosterone/kg given daily for 7 days failed to cancel the effect of IL-1β on the reduction of serum IRI levels, although it attenuated the weight loss after adrenalectomy. The data suggested that withdrawal of glucocorticoids after adrenalectomy potentiates the effect of IL-1β on the reduction of serum IRI levels. Glucocorticoids may have a protective action against the reduction of serum IRI levels by IL-1β.
Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the cytokines released from inflammatory cells, stimulates insulin secretion in a physiological concentration (1-100 pg/ml), but the exact mechanism is still unknown. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism of IL-6-induced stimulation of insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells. The effects of the addition of nifedipine on the IL-6 (100 pg/ml)-induced stimulation of insulin secretion were investigated. We also examined the possibility that IL-6 (1-100 pg/ml) may stimulate insulin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. The addition of 100 and 1000 nM nifedipine significantly attenuated the stimulatory effects of 100 pg/ml IL-6 on insulin secretion. The addition of 1-100 pg/ml IL-6 dose-dependently increased preproinsulin mRNA expression relative to beta-actin mRNA. IL-6 increased insulin gene promoter activity of fragments A (-2188 to +337 bp) and B (-1782 to +270 bp) but not fragments C (-1275 to +270 bp), D (-1138 to +270 bp), E (-880 to +236 bp) or F (-356 to +252 bp). The addition of 10 nM nifedipine completely abolished the stimulatory effect of 10-100 pg/ml IL-6 on relative preproinsulin mRNA expression. These data raised the possibility that IL-6 increased preproinsulin mRNA expression via the stimulation of Ca(2+) influx which enhances insulin gene expression.
This study set out to elucidate the mechanism by which H2O2 generation is regulated in cultured porcine thyroid cells. We monitored continuously the effects of the calcium ionophore A23187 and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on H2O2 generation, using homovanillic acid and horseradish peroxidase. A23187 and TPA stimulated H2O2 generation. A23187 increased cytoplasmic free calcium and TPA activated protein kinase C. Generation of H2O2 is therefore regulated by cytoplasmic free calcium and protein kinase C. Exposure to A23187 or TPA augmented further the stimulation of H2O2 generation by TPA or A23187 respectively. Thus A23187 and TPA, by increasing cytoplasmic free calcium and activating protein kinase C respectively, synergistically activate H2O2 generation.
Pioglitazone hydrochloride (AD-4833), one of the thiazolidinedione analogs, is a new anti-diabetic agent which improves peripheral insulin resistance in diabetic patients. We determined the direct effect of AD-4833 on insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells. The effects of AD-4833 (10−7m to 10−5m) on insulin secretion were examined in 3 and 7 mm glucose-containing F-12 K media. The addition of 10−5m AD-4833 significantly increased insulin secretion in both media, but its stimulatory effect was more potent in the medium containing 7 mm glucose. The addition of 10−5m AD-4833 caused an immediate, significant increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Nifedipine at all concentrations from 10 to 1000 nm significantly attenuated insulin secretion by 10−5m AD-4833. In addition, 10−5m AD-4833 failed to stimulate insulin secretion in the Ca2+-free Kreb's-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. These data indicated that AD-4833 stimulates in vitro insulin secretion in HIT-T 15 cells, perhaps by inducing Ca2+ influx.
It is well known that progesterone and estrogen are essential hormones for maintaining pregnancy in most mammals. Some specific roles of progesterone for the maintenance of pregnancy have been clarified, but the role of estrogen is not well known. This study examines the effects of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole hydrochloride (Fad), on fetuses, uterine physical properties and the mRNA expression of the uterine enzymes that are related to collagen metabolism during late pregnancy in rats. Continuous s.c. infusion with 300 micro g/day Fad from day 14 of pregnancy (day 1=the day of sperm detection) reduced the concentration of plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)), and did not change that of plasma progesterone, compared with controls. The treatment increased the intrauterine pressure and reduced the size and compliance of the uterine tissue framework. It also caused injuries (hematomata on the extremities) in about one-quarter of fetuses by day 20. The collagen content of the uterine ampullae was not changed by the treatment. Uterine mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), which degrades collagens, and of lysyl oxidase (LO), which is necessary for the formation of intra- and inter-molecular cross-links of collagen, were examined by quantitative RT-PCR. The treatment with Fad had no effect on the expression of MMP-1 mRNA and increased that of LO mRNA. Daily s.c. injection with 0.2 micro g E(2) restored the changes in uterine physical properties and the mRNA expression of LO caused by the Fad treatment, and prevented fetal injury, indicating that the influences of Fad treatment are due to estrogen deficiency but not to toxicological effects of Fad. These results imply that estrogen deficiency during late pregnancy in rats obstructs development of the uterine tissue framework so as to cause fetal injury. It is possible that an increase in the uterine expression of LO gene may be involved in this obstruction.
The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on cytoplasmic pH (pHi) and [3H]thymidine incorporation were studied in primary cultures of porcine thyroid cells. IGF-I alkalinized thyroid cells and stimulated thymidine incorporation in a dose-dependent manner; the effects of IGF-I on alkalinization (the maximal rates of change of cytoplasmic pHi/min ((dpHi/dt)max)) and thymidine incorporation were observed at 2 ng/ml and were maximal at 100 ng/ml, with half-maximal stimulation at approximately 10 ng/ml. The results indicate that Na+/H+ exchange or cell alkalinization may function as a transmembrane signal transducer in the action of IGF-I on thyroid cell proliferation. Several mitogens and comitogens which activate sodium hydrogen exchange, including epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and nerve growth factor, have been listed. Activation with IGF-I has not, however, been presented before. Thus the present study constitutes the first demonstration of IGF-I-stimulated activation of Na+/H+ exchange or cell alkalinization.
The cytoplasmic concentration of free calcium was measured using aequorin, a calcium-sensitive photoprotein. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced a rise in cytoplasmic free calcium and iodide discharge in cultured porcine thyroid cells. The minimum dose of A23187 effecting an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium induced iodide discharge. The A23187-induced rise in cytoplasmic free calcium was followed by iodide discharge. The results indicate that A23187-induced iodide discharge is mediated by a rise in the cytoplasmic concentration of free calcium.