Thyroid dysfunction is classified into hyperthyroidism and congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Both hyperthyroidism and CH can cause heart lesions; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The left ventricle was collected from eu-, hyper-, and hypothyroid rat. RNA was extracted and reverse-transcripted to cDNA. Real-time fluorescence quantitation-PCR was used to quantify the differential expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) subtype mRNA among eu-, hyper-, and hypothyroid rat myocardium. Here, we show that compared with the normal myocardium, TRα1 mRNA expression was upregulated by 51% (P<0.01), TRα2 mRNA expression was downregulated by 58% (P<0.01), and TRβ1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in hyperthyroid rat myocardium (P>0.05). TRα1, TRα2, and TRβ1 were expressed in normal and hypothyroid rat myocardium throughout the developmental process. In hypothyroid rats, myocardial TRα1 mRNA expression was generally downregulated and the expression peak appeared late. Myocardial TRα2 mRNA expression was generally upregulated and the expression peak appeared late. Myocardial TRβ1 mRNA expression was generally downregulated and changed similarly with the control group. In addition, the hypogenetic myocardium can be seen in the hypothyroid rat by pathology study. Taken together, the abnormal expression of TR subtype mRNA may have a close relationship with the pathogenesis of CH and hyperthyroidism heart disease.
C R Liu, L Y Li, F Shi, X Y Zang, Y M Liu, Y Sun and B H Kan
L Yang, CB Kuo, Y Liu, D Coss, X Xu, C Chen, ML Oster-Granite and AM Walker
During rat pregnancy initial high concentrations of prolactin (PRL) decline by about day 9, concomitant with an increase in the ratio of unmodified to phosphorylated PRL. The physiological significance of both the decline in total PRL and the change in ratio of the two PRLs is unknown. To test the importance of each, either unmodified PRL (U-PRL) or a molecular mimic of phosphorylated PRL (PP-PRL) were continuously administered to rats throughout pregnancy. A dose of 6 microg/24 h resulted in circulating concentrations of 50 ng/ml of each administered PRL and had little effect on the pregnancy itself. After birth, pups were killed and various tissues examined. In the pup lungs, exposure to additional PP-PRL caused a reduction in epithelial integrity and an increase in apoptosis, whereas exposure to additional U-PRL had beneficial, anti-apoptotic effects. In the heart, PP-PRL caused an apparent developmental delay, whereas U-PRL promoted tissue compaction. In the blood, U-PRL increased the number of mature red blood cells at the expense of white blood cell production. Within the white blood cell population, myelopoiesis was favored at the expense of lymphopoiesis. PP-PRL, in contrast, had a less dramatic influence on the hematopoietic compartment by promoting red blood cell maturation and granulocyte production. In the thymus, exposure to PP-PRL caused accumulation of apoptotic thymocytes in enlarged glands, whereas exposure to U-PRL resulted in smaller thymi. In the spleen, exposure to U-PRL increased cellularity, with the majority of cells belonging to the erythroid series - a finding consistent with increased red blood cells in the circulation. Exposure to PP-PRL was without discernible effect. In all of these tissues, the contrasting effects of the two PRLs indicate that the absolute concentration of PRL is not crucial, but that the ratio of U-PRL to PP-PRL has a profound effect on tissue development. In brown fat, both PRL preparations decreased the number of lipid droplets. This result is therefore probably a consequence of the increase in total PRL. The results of this study attest to the importance of the U-PRL:PP-PRL ratio normally present during pregnancy and have provided clues as to the possible pathogenesis of a variety of neonatal problems.
H Y Li, Y X Liu, L Harvey, S Shafaeizadeh, E M van der Beek and W Han
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is estimated at 14% globally, and in some countries, such as Singapore, exceeds 20%. Both women and children exposed to GDM have an increased risk of later metabolic diseases, cardiovascular disease and other health issues. Beyond lifestyle changes and pharmaceutical intervention using existing type 2 diabetes medications for expecting women, there are limited treatment options for women with GDM; targeting better outcomes of potentially affected infants is unexplored. Numerous animal models have been generated for understanding of pathological processes of GDM development and for development of treatment strategies. These models, however, suffer from limited windows of opportunity to examine risk factors and potential intervention options. By combining short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) treatments before pregnancy, we have established a mouse model with marked transient gestation-specific hyperglycemia, which allows testing of nutritional and pharmacological interventions before, during and beyond pregnancy.