Gastric bypass surgery produces clear antidiabetic effects in a substantial proportion of morbidly obese patients. In view of the recent trend away from ‘bariatric’ surgery and toward ‘metabolic’ surgery, it is important to elucidate the enhancing effect of bypass surgery on pancreatic β-cell mass, which is related to diabetes remission in non-obese patients. We investigated the effects of gastric bypass surgery on glycemic control and other pancreatic changes in a spontaneous non-obese type 2 diabetes Goto-Kakizaki rat model. Significant improvements in postprandial hyperglycemia and plasma c-peptide level were observed when glucose was administered orally post-surgery. Other important events observed after surgery were enhanced first phase insulin secretion in a in site pancreatic perfusion experiment, pancreatic hyperplasia, improved islet structure (revealed by immunohistochemical analysis), striking increase in β-cell mass, slight increase in ratio of β-cell area to total pancreas area, and increased number of small islets closely related to exocrine ducts. No notable changes were observed in ratio of β-cell to non-β endocrine cell area, β-cell apoptosis, or β-cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate that gastric bypass surgery in this rat model increases endocrine cells and pancreatic hyperplasia, and reflect the important role of the gastrointestinal system in regulation of metabolism.
Xinrong Zhou, Bangguo Qian, Ning Ji, Conghui Lui, Zhiyuan Liu, Bing Li, Huarong Zhou and Caifeng Yan
Dan Li, Yan Ji, Chunlan Zhao, Yapeng Yao, Anlan Yang, Honghong Jin, Yang Chen, Mingjun San, Jing Zhang, Mingjiao Zhang, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng and Yaowu Zheng
Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor and known for regulation of maternal and social behaviors. Null mutation (Oxtr−/−) leads to defects in lactation due to impaired milk ejection and maternal nurturing. Overexpression of OXTR has never been studied. To define the functions of OXTR overexpression, a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses mouse Oxtr under β-actin promoter was developed (++ Oxtr). ++ Oxtr mice displayed advanced development and maturation of mammary gland, including ductal distention, enhanced secretory differentiation and early milk production at non-pregnancy and early pregnancy. However, ++ Oxtr dams failed to produce adequate amount of milk and led to lethality of newborns due to early involution of mammary gland in lactation. Mammary gland transplantation results indicated the abnormal mammary gland development was mainly from hormonal changes in ++ Oxtr mice but not from OXTR overexpression in mammary gland. Elevated OXTR expression increased prolactin-induced phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STAT5 (p-STAT5), and decreased progesterone level, leading to early milk production in non-pregnant and early pregnant females, whereas low prolactin and STAT5 activation in lactation led to insufficient milk production. Progesterone treatment reversed the OXTR-induced accelerated mammary gland development by inhibition of prolactin/p-STAT5 pathway. Prolactin administration rescued lactation deficiency through STAT5 activation. Progesterone plays a negative role in OXTR-regulated prolactin/p-STAT5 pathways. The study provides evidence that OXTR overexpression induces abnormal mammary gland development through progesterone and prolactin-regulated p-STAT5 pathway.