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  • Author: Yoshito Aoyagi x
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Kazuhiko Imakawa, Rulan Bai, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Atsushi Ideta, Yoshito Aoyagi and Kazuya Kusama

As placental morphology as well as trophoblast characteristics exhibit wide diversity across mammalian species, underling molecules were also thought to vary greatly. In the majority of cases, however, regardless of the mode of implantation, physiological and biochemical processes in conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium including the kinds of gene expression and their products are now considered to share many similarities. In fact, recent progress has identified that in addition to the hormones, cytokines, proteases and cell adhesion molecules classically characterized, molecules related to lymphocyte homing and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) are all required for the progression of conceptus implantation to placentation. In this review, therefore, the newest findings are all incorporated into the molecular and cellular events related to conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium; primarily from non-invasive bovine placentation and also from invasive human implantation.