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Xuanchun Wang, Wei Gong, Yu Liu, Zhihong Yang, Wenbai Zhou, Mei Wang, Zhen Yang, Jie Wen, and Renming Hu

We report the identification of a novel secreted peptide, INM02. The mRNA transcript of human INM02 gene is about 3.0 kb. Its open-reading frame contains 762 bps and encodes a protein of 254 amino acids. Northern blot analysis demonstrates that INM02 mRNA is widely expressed in rat tissues, especially with abundant quantities in pancreatic islets, testis, and bladder tissue. We have expressed recombinant INM02 protein and generated rabbit anti-INM02 polyclonal antibodies. We show here that INM02 could be detectable in human serum by ELISA. We also present evidence that INM02 mRNA expression could be regulated by glucose. Experiments on both MIN6 cells and intact isolated islets demonstrate that INM02 mRNA levels are increased more than threefold by high glucose (25 mM) when compared with low glucose (5.5 mM). ELISA analysis shows that secretion of INM02 is significantly augmented by high glucose in vitro. It is speculated that as a novel secreted protein, INM02 is associated with functions of pancreatic islets, especially of β-cells.

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Zhixiong He, Zhiliang Tan, Zhihong Sun, Karen A Beauchemin, Shaoxun Tang, Chuanshe Zhou, Xuefeng Han, Min Wang, and Duanqin Wu

Twelve pregnant goats were assigned to three dietary treatments during late gestation, namely control (C: metabolizable energy, 5.75 MJ/kg; crude protein, 12.6% and dry matter basis), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER), to examine the effects of nutrient restriction on the immune status of pregnant goats. Plasma was sampled on day 90, 125 and 145 from pregnant goats to determine cytokine production (interleukin 2 (IL2), IL6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained on day 145 and activated by lipopolysaccharide to determine cytokine production, and then exposed (PR and ER) to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, or control to NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor to explore the role of NO in regulating cytokine production. Plasma IL2, IL6 and TNFα were not altered during gestation, but NO was increased (P<0.05) at gestation day 145 for PR and ER. I n vitro, compared with control, NO was lower for PR and ER (P<0.001), but IL6 was higher for PR (P<0.001) and ER (P=0.11). The addition of SNP decreased IL6 (P<0.001, PR; P=0.12, ER) in the malnourished group, and l-NAME increased (P<0.001) IL6 in control compared to those treatments without SNP or l-NAME. The results indicate that plasma NO acted as a regulator of cytokine function exhibiting negative feedback to maintain steady plasma IL6 concentration in PR or ER goats during late gestation.

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Qiaoli Cui, Yijing Liao, Yaojing Jiang, Xiaohang Huang, Weihong Tao, Quanquan Zhou, Anna Shao, Ying Zhao, Jia Li, Anran Ma, Zhihong Wang, Li Zhang, Zunyuan Yang, Yinan Liang, Minglin Wu, Zhenyan Yang, Wen Zeng, and Qinghua Wang

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an insulinotropic hormone and plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 has a short half-life (t1/2<2 min) due to degrading enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and rapid kidney clearance, which limits its clinical application as a therapeutic reagent. We demonstrated recently that supaglutide, a novel GLP-1 mimetic generated by recombinant fusion protein techniques, exerted hypoglycemic and beta cell trophic effects in type 2 diabetes db/db mice. In the present study, we examined supaglutide’s therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics in diabetic rhesus monkeys. We found that a single subcutaneous injection of supaglutide of tested doses transiently and significantly reduced blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent fashion in the diabetic monkeys. During a 4-weeks intervention period, treatment of supaglutide of weekly dosing dose-dependently decreased fasting and random blood glucose levels. This was associated with significantly declined plasma fructosamine levels. The repeated administration of supaglutide remarkably also decreased body weight in a dose-dependent fashion accompanied by decreased food intake. Intravenous glucose tolerance test results showed that supaglutide improved glucose tolerance. The intervention also showed enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improved lipid profile in diabetic rhesus monkeys. These results reveal that supaglutide exerts beneficial effects in regulating blood glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic rhesus monkeys.