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Lei Du, Yang Wang, Cong-Rong Li, Liang-Jian Chen, Jin-Yang Cai, Zheng-Rong Xia, Wen-Tao Zeng, Zi-Bin Wang, Xi-Chen Chen, Fan Hu, Dong Zhang, Xiao-Wei Xing, and Zhi-Xia Yang

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a major severe ovary disorder affecting 5–10% of reproductive women around the world. PCOS can be considered a metabolic disease because it is often accompanied by obesity and diabetes. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains abundant mitochondria and adipokines and has been proven to be effective for treating various metabolic diseases. Recently, allotransplanted BAT successfully recovered the ovarian function of PCOS rat. However, BAT allotransplantation could not be applied to human PCOS; the most potent BAT is from infants, so voluntary donors are almost inaccessible. We recently reported that single BAT xenotransplantation significantly prolonged the fertility of aging mice and did not cause obvious immunorejection. However, PCOS individuals have distinct physiologies from aging mice; thus, it remains essential to study whether xenotransplanted rat BAT can be used for treating PCOS mice. In this study, rat-to-mouse BAT xenotransplantation fortunately did not cause severe rejection reaction, and significantly recovered ovarian functions, indicated by the recovery of fertility, oocyte quality, and the levels of multiple essential genes and kinases. Besides, the blood biochemical index, glucose resistance, and insulin resistance were improved. Moreover, transcriptome analysis showed that the recovered PCOS F0 mother following BAT xenotransplantation could also benefit the F1 generation. Finally, BAT xenotransplantation corrected characteristic gene expression abnormalities found in the ovaries of human PCOS patients. These findings suggest that BAT xenotransplantation could be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating PCOS patients.