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Menghong Yan and Qiwei Zhai

mechanisms for inheritance of acquired metabolic disorders from father to offspring are elusive. Recent studies show that the amounts of some sperm tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs), in mice fed a low-protein diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), were significantly

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Tod Fullston, Nicole O McPherson, Deirdre Zander-Fox, and Michelle Lane

substantial post-fertilisation reprogramming that occurs during embryo development. For example, paternal obesity alters the molecular composition of sperm, alters the developmental trajectory of resultant embryos and increases the incidence of obesity and

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A Glover and S J Assinder

sperm concentration, plasma testosterone ( Goyal et al. 2003 , Sharpe et al. 2003 ), Sertoli cell number ( Atanassova et al. 2005 ), alters testicular gene expression ( Adachi et al. 2004 ) and causes rete tubule distension and reduced

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Meijia Zhang, Haiyan Hong, Bo Zhou, Shiying Jin, Chao Wang, Maoyong Fu, Songbo Wang, and Guoliang Xia

receptors have no intrinsic ability to generate cGMP ( Drewett et al. 1992 ). In mammals, sperm are not immediately capable of fertilising oocytes. They must undergo modifications that normally occur in the female reproductive tract ( Austin 1951

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J Santiago-Moreno, A Gómez-Brunet, A Toledano-Díaz, R Salas-Vega, F Gómez-Guillamón, and A López-Sebastián

usually dominant – produce the best quality sperm ( Roldan et al . 1998 , Santiago-Moreno et al . 2007 ). The reproductive success of bovid males is therefore related to pre-copulatory strategies such as combat ability, which is strongly related to horn

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Shuai Li and Wipawee Winuthayanon

Introduction Fertilization is a complex process that enables the reproduction and continuation of the species. In mammals, successful fertilization requires that sperm should survive the extremely harsh environment of the female reproductive

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Eugenia H Goulding, Sylvia C Hewitt, Noriko Nakamura, Katherine Hamilton, Kenneth S Korach, and Edward M Eddy

segment of the epididymis ( Eddy et al . 1996 , Hess et al . 1997 ). This resulted in progressive dilation of the seminiferous tubule lumen, reduction in motility and loss of fertilizing ability by sperm, and disruption of the seminiferous epithelium

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Miguel A Velazquez, Tom P Fleming, and Adam J Watkins

activities and thereby alter the nutrient composition of luminal compartments and the direct environment experienced by early embryos ( Eckert et al. 2012 , Jordaens et al. 2017 ). A similar disturbance to the seminal tubule and sperm microenvironment by

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James A Oakes, Lise Barnard, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Vincent T Cunliffe, and Nils P Krone

may possess either ovaries or testes, indicating that androgens are dispensable for testis differentiation. Androgen-deficient or -resistant male zebrafish are infertile in standard breeding scenarios, however, their sperm may fertilise eggs collected

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Mohammad Reza Safarinejad, Kamran Azma, and Ali Asgar Kolahi

to the Kruger parameters. The normal WHO values included sperm concentration of 20×10 6 spermatozoa/ml or more and motility of 50% or more with forward progression. Using the Kruger strict criteria, males with greater than 14% normal forms were