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EG Siegel, A Seidenstucker, B Gallwitz, F Schmitz, A Reinecke-Luthge, G Kloppel, UR Folsch and WE Schmidt

Liver cirrhosis is often accompanied by a disturbed carbohydrate metabolism similar to type 2 diabetes. To investigate the severity of the defect in insulin secretion in this form of diabetes, we measured insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets of rats with CCl(4)-phenobarbital-induced liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was confirmed by clinical signs, elevated liver enzymes and histology. Fasting venous plasma glucose concentrations were equal in rats with liver cirrhosis and in controls. Plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were significantly greater (P<0.01) in cirrhotic rats than in control animals. Glucose (16.7 mM)-induced stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets revealed a twofold increase in control and cirrhotic rats. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion, however, were significantly lower in cirrhotic animals. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, islets from control and cirrhotic animals were incubated with GLP-1 in concentrations from 10(-)(11) to 10(-)(6) M. GLP-1 stimulated insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner. In islets from cirrhotic rats, basal and stimulated insulin secretion was blunted compared with controls. These data show that the hyperinsulinemia observed in liver cirrhosis is not due to an increase of insulin secretion from islets, but could be explained by decreased hepatic clearance of insulin. GLP-1 may ameliorate diabetes in patients with liver cirrhosis.

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G. Richter, R. Göke, B. Göke and R. Arnold

ABSTRACT

The effect of dexamethasone on binding of glucagonlike peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide) to rat insulinoma-derived cells (RINm5F) was investigated. Preincubation of RINm5F cells with dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) for 24 h resulted in a decrease of GLP1(7-36)amide binding to 55·0±8·16% (mean ± s.e.m.), incubation for 48 h to 39·1±1·76%, and for 72 h to 15·5±4·35% of maximal binding. The GLP-1(7–36)amide-induced stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) production was significantly decreased to 61·03±7·4% of maximum production in cells pretreated with dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) for 48 h. The decreased binding was due to a reduction of the receptor number while the receptor affinity remained unchanged. These inhibitory effects on binding and cAMP formation induced by dexamethasone were completely abolished when the antiglucocorticoid RU 38486 (100 nmol/l) was added during preincubation with dexamethasone. RU 38486 alone had no effects. Our data suggest that the biological action of GLP-1(7–36) amide at the B-cell may be modified by glucocorticoids.

Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 126, 445–450

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R. M. Elliott, L. M. Morgan, J. A. Tredger, S. Deacon, J. Wright and V. Marks

ABSTRACT

The acute effects of different macronutrients on the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were compared in healthy human subjects. Circulating levels of the two hormones were measured over a 24-h period during which subjects consumed a mixed diet. In the first study, eight subjects consumed three equicaloric (375 kcal) test meals of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Small increases in plasma GLP-1(7–36) amide were found after all meals. Levels reached a maximum 30 min after the carbohydrate and 150 min after the fat load. Ingestion of both carbohydrate and fat induced substantial rises in GIP secretion, but the protein meal had no effect. In a second study, eight subjects consumed 75 g glucose or the equivalent portion of complex carbohydrate as boiled brown rice or barley. Plasma GIP, insulin and glucose levels increased after all three meals, the largest increase being observed following glucose and the smallest following the barley meal. Plasma GLP-1(7–36)amide levels rose only following the glucose meal. In the 24-h study, plasma GLP-1(7–36)amide and GIP concentrations were increased following every meal and remained elevated throughout the day, only falling to fasting levels at night. The increases in circulating GLP-1(7–36)amide and GIP levels following carbohydrate or a mixed meal are consistent with their role as incretins. The more sustained rises observed in the daytime during the 24-h study are consistent with an anabolic role in lipid metabolism.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 159–166

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L Friis-Hansen, KA Lacourse, LC Samuelson and JJ Holst

The maturation of many peptide hormones is attenuated in carboxypeptidase E (CPE)-deficient fat/fat mice, leading to a slowly developing, adult-onset obesity with mild diabetes. To determine the contribution of the hormones generated from the proglucagon precursor to this phenotype, we studied the tissue-specific processing of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in these mice. In all tissues examined there was a great reduction in mature amidated GLP-1. Furthermore, a lack of CPE attenuates prohormone convertase processing of proglucagon in both the pancreas and the intestine. These findings suggest that defects in proglucagon processing together with other endocrine malfunctions could contribute to the diabetic and obesity phenotype in fat/fat mice.

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L Morgan, J Arendt, D Owens, S Folkard, S Hampton, S Deacon, J English, D Ribeiro and K Taylor

This study was undertaken to determine whether the internal clock contributes to the hormone and metabolic responses following food, in an experiment designed to dissociate internal clock effects from other factors. Nine female subjects participated. They lived indoors for 31 days with normal time cues, including the natural light: darkness cycle. For 7 days they retired to bed from 0000 h to 0800 h. They then underwent a 26-h 'constant routine' (CR) starting at 0800 h, being seated awake in dim light with hourly 88 Kcal drinks. They then lived on an imposed 27-h day (18 h of wakefulness, 9 h allowed for sleep), for a total of 27 days. A second 26-h CR, starting at 2200 h, was completed. During each CR salivary melatonin and plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), non-essential fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured hourly. Melatonin and body temperature data indicated no shift in the endogenous clock during the 27-h imposed schedule. Postprandial NEFA, GIP and GLP-1 showed no consistent effects. Glucose, TAG and insulin increased during the night in the first CR. There was a significant effect of both the endogenous clock and sleep for glucose and TAG, but not for insulin. These findings may be relevant to the known increased risk of cardiovascular disease amongst shift workers.

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S M Hampton, L M Morgan, N Lawrence, T Anastasiadou, F Norris, S Deacon, D Ribeiro and J Arendt

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate postprandial responses to a mixed meal in simulated shift work conditions. Nine normal healthy subjects (six males and three females) were studied on two occasions at the same clock time (1330 h) after consuming test meals, first in their normal environment and secondly after a 9 h phase advance (body clock time 2230 h). Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), triacylglycerol (TAG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined at intervals for 6 h after each test meal. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, GIP and GLP-1 profiles were evaluated by calculating areas under the curve (AUC) for the first 2 h and the last 4 h of the sampling together with total AUC. Significantly higher postprandial glucose responses (total AUC) were observed after the phase shift than before (AUC 0–360 min, 2·01 (1·51–2·19) vs 1·79 (1·56–2·04) mmol/l.min; P<0·02; mean (range)). No significant difference was observed when the first 2 h of each response was compared, but significantly higher glucose levels were observed in the last 4 h of the study after the phase shift than before (AUC 120–360 min, 1·32 (1·08–1·42) vs 1·16 (1·00–1·28) mmol/l.min; P<0·05). Similar results were obtained for insulin (AUC 0—360 min, 81·72 (30·75– 124·97) vs 58·98 (28·03–92·57) pmol/l.min; P<0·01; AUC 120–360 min, 40·73 (16·20–65·25) vs 25·71 (14·25–37·33) pmol/l.min; P<0·02). No differences were observed in postprandial plasma GIP and GLP-1 responses before and after the phase shift. Postprandial circulating lipid levels were affected by phase shifting. Peak plasma TAG levels occurred 5 h postprandially before the phase shift. Postprandial rises in plasma TAG were significantly delayed after the phase shift and TAG levels continued to rise throughout the study. Plasma postprandial NEFA levels fell during the first 3 h both before and after the phase shift. Their rate of return to basal levels was significantly delayed after the phase shift compared with before. This study demonstrates that a simulated phase shift can significantly alter pancreatic B-cell responses and postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 151, 259–267

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VA Gault, PR Flatt, P Harriott, MH Mooney, CJ Bailey and FP O'Harte

The therapeutic potential of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in improving glycaemic control in diabetes has been widely studied, but the potential beneficial effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have until recently been almost overlooked. One of the major problems, however, in exploiting either GIP or GLP-1 as potential therapeutic agents is their short duration of action, due to enzymatic degradation in vivo by dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV). Therefore, this study examined the plasma stability, biological activity and antidiabetic potential of two novel NH2-terminal Ala2-substituted analogues of GIP, containing glycine (Gly) or serine (Ser). Following incubation in plasma, (Ser2)GIP had a reduced hydrolysis rate compared with native GIP, while (Gly2)GIP was completely stable. In Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts stably transfected with the human GIP receptor, GIP, (Gly2)GIP and (Ser2)GIP stimulated cAMP production with EC(50) values of 18.2, 14.9 and 15.0 nM respectively. In the pancreatic BRIN-BD11 beta-cell line, (Gly2)GIP and (Ser2)GIP (10(-8) M) evoked significant increases (1.2- and 1.5-fold respectively; P<0.01 to P<0.001) in insulinotropic activity compared with GIP. In obese diabetic ob/ob mice, both analogues significantly lowered (P<0.001) the glycaemic excursion in response to i.p. glucose. This enhanced glucose-lowering ability was coupled to a significantly raised (P<0.01) and more protracted insulin response compared with GIP. These data indicate that substitution of the penultimate Ala2 in GIP by Gly or Ser confers resistance to plasma DPP IV degradation, resulting in enhanced biological activity, therefore raising the possibility of their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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JM Conlon, JB Kim, A Johansson and S Kikuyama

Electrospray mass spectrometry coupled with reverse-phase HPLC was used to identify peptides in the molecular mass range 3000-6000 Da in extracts of the pancreata of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae) and the red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster (Caudata: Salamandridae). Amino acid sequences of insulins, peptides derived from the post-translational processing of proglucagons and pancreatic polypeptide were determined by automated Edman degradation. Three molecular forms of insulin were isolated from the tetraploid organism X. laevis that represent insulin-1 and insulin-2, as deduced from the nucleotide sequences of previously characterized cDNAs, and a third form which differed from insulin-2 by the single amino acid substitution Asp(21)-->Glu in the B-chain. The amino acid sequence of Xenopus preproglucagons (genes 1 and 2 ) may be deduced from the nucleotide sequences of cDNAs but the pathways of post-translation processing of the precursors are not known. Two molecular forms of glucagon with 36 amino acids, derived from genes 1 and 2 and representing glucagon-29 extended from its C terminus by different heptapeptides, and five molecular forms of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were isolated. The GLPs represent proglucagon-(77-113), -(122-158) and -(160-191) from gene 1, and proglucagon-(77-113) and -(160-191) from gene 2. A single molecular form of insulin, glucagon-36, a C-terminally alpha-amidated GLP-1 with 30 amino acid residues, a 33 amino acid residue GLP-2 and pancreatic polypeptide were isolated from the pancreatic extract of the diploid organism C. pyrrhogaster. This study has illustrated the power of electrospray mass spectrometry for the rapid and reliable identification of peptides in chromatographic fractions without the need to use radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay or bioassay.

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I Navarro and T W Moon

Abstract

We have characterized the specific binding of glucagon in hepatocytes isolated from two teleost species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus). Specific glucagon binding was 9·3 and 10·7% in bullhead and eel hepatocytes respectively, after a 2-h incubation at 12 °C. Curvilinear Scatchard plots suggest the presence of two classes of binding sites with apparent dissociation constants (K d) of 1·97 nm (high affinity) and 17·3 nm (low affinity) for bullhead and 2·68 and 22·9 nm for eel cells. The number of high-affinity binding sites per cell was significantly higher in the eel (10 413) than in the bullhead (3811). The number of high-affinity insulin-binding sites was approximately two times higher than that for glucagon in bullheads and the opposite in the eel hepatocytes. In competition experiments, insulin did not displace 125I-labelled glucagon binding in the hepatocytes of either species, while glucagon-like peptide-1(7–37) (GLP-1) displaced glucagon but only at high concentrations, suggesting separate glucagon- and GLP-1-binding sites. The rate of dissociation of hepatocyte-bound 125I-labelled glucagon was similar for both species. Preincubation of hepatocytes in 100 nm glucagon decreased the number of high-affinity glucagon-binding sites by approximately 55% in both species, while the K d values remained unchanged. Glucagon bound to the cell surface is internalized by fish hepatocytes. These properties indicate that the glucagon binding to hepatocytes of these two teleost species is similar to that reported for mammalian hepatocytes.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 140, 217–227

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Martin Haluzik

stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and reduce excessive secretion of glucagon by pancreatic α-cells, thus improving two important defects of T2DM ( Holst et al . 2008 ). Of the two currently known incretins, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1