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Giselle Adriana Abruzzese, Maria Florencia Heber, Silvana Rocio Ferreira, Leandro Martin Velez, Roxana Reynoso, Omar Pedro Pignataro and Alicia Beatriz Motta

Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis.

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Gordon Moody, Pedro J Beltran, Petia Mitchell, Elaina Cajulis, Young-Ah Chung, David Hwang, Richard Kendall, Robert Radinsky, Pinchas Cohen and Frank J Calzone

Ganitumab is a fully human MAB to the human type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R). Binding assays showed that ganitumab recognized murine IGF1R with sub-nanomolar affinity (K D=0.22 nM) and inhibited the interaction of murine IGF1R with IGF1 and IGF2. Ganitumab inhibited IGF1-induced activation of IGF1R in murine lungs and CT26 murine colon carcinoma cells and tumors. Addition of ganitumab to 5-fluorouracil resulted in enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the CT26 model. Pharmacological intervention with ganitumab in naïve nude mice resulted in a number of physiological changes described previously in animals with targeted deletions of Igf1 and Igf1r, including inhibition of weight gain, reduced glucose tolerance and significant increase in serum levels of GH, IGF1 and IGFBP3. Flow cytometric analysis identified GR1/CD11b-positive cells as the highest IGF1R-expressing cells in murine peripheral blood. Administration of ganitumab led to a dose-dependent, reversible decrease in the number of peripheral neutrophils with no effect on erythrocytes or platelets. These findings indicate that acute IGF availability for its receptor plays a critical role in physiological growth, glucose metabolism and neutrophil physiology and support the presence of a pituitary IGF1R-driven negative feedback loop that tightly regulates serum IGF1 levels through Gh signaling.

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HP Ammon, M Bacher, WF Brandle, A Waheed, M Roenfeldt, ME el-Sayed, AA Ahmed and MA Wahl

Glucose infusion into rats has been shown to sensitize/desensitize insulin secretion in response to glucose. In pancreatic islets from glucose-infused rats (GIR) (48 h, 50%, 2 ml/h) basal insulin release (2.8 mmol/l glucose) was more than fourfold compared with islets from saline-infused controls and the concentration-response curve for glucose was shifted to the left with a maximum at 11.1 mmol/l. The concentration-response curve for 45Ca2+ uptake was also shifted to the left in islets from GIR with a maximum at 11.1 mmol/l glucose. Starting from a high basal level at 2.8 mmol/l glucose KCl produced no insulin release or 45Ca2+ uptake in islets from GIR. Islets from GIR exhibited a higher ATP/ADP ratio in the presence of 2.8 mmol/l glucose and marked inhibition of 86Rb+ efflux occurred even at 3 mmol/l glucose. Moreover, in islets from GIR the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides were increased. On the other hand insulin content was reduced to about 20%. The data suggest that a 48-h glucose infusion sensitizes glucose-induced insulin release in vitro in concentrations below 11.1 mmol/l. This may, at least in part, be due to enhanced glucose metabolism providing increased availability of critical metabolic factors including ATP which, in turn, decrease the threshold for depolarization and therefore calcium uptake. Calcium uptake may then be further augmented by elevation of the redox state of pyridine nucleotides.

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M. C. Neville, V. S. Sawicki and W. W. Hay Jr

ABSTRACT

In order to determine whether short term variations in plasma glucose and/or insulin influence milk lactose secretion in women, the effects of fasting and increased blood insulin and glucose on milk volume and composition were studied with glucose clamp methodology in exclusively and partially breast-feeding women. Twenty hours of fasting had no discernable effect on the output of milk or its macronutrient composition. Four hours of increased plasma insulin, studied under conditions where plasma glucose was maintained at the fasting level, had no effect on milk volume, milk glucose concentration, total fat content or lactose secretion rate. Increased plasma glucose, maintained at twice fasting levels for 4 to 6 h, produced a threefold increase in milk glucose concentration but had no significant effect on the rate of lactose synthesis. In partially breast-feeding women producing no more than 200 ml milk per day, a similar degree of hyperglycaemia increased milk glucose more than fourfold but did not significantly increase the milk secretion rate. It is concluded that human milk production is isolated from the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate glucose metabolism in the rest of the body, in part because the lactose synthetase system has a K m for glucose lower than the concentration available in the Golgi compartment.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 139, 165–173

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A Trumper, K Trumper and D Horsch

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) acts as a glucose-dependent growth factor for beta-cells. Here we show that GIP and glucose also act synergistically as anti-apoptotic factors for beta-cells, using the well-differentiated beta-cell line, INS-1. Mitogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling of GIP were dependent upon pleiotropic activation of protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP regulatory element binder (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/PKB signaling modules. The signaling modules activated by GIP were dependent on glucose metabolism and calcium influx and were tightly linked by multiple activating and inhibiting cross-talk. These interactions included: (i) a central role of tyrosine phosphorylation for stimulation of PKA/CREB, MAPK and PI3-kinase/PKB, (ii) inhibition of PKA/CREB by the MAPK pathway at the level of MAPK kinase-1 or downstream, (iii) activation of MAPK signaling by PI3-kinase and PKA at the level of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 or upstream, and (iv) activation of PKB by MAPK and PKA signaling at the level of PKB or upstream. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of CREB signaling by Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase I/IV. These results indicated that GIP acts as a mitogenic and anti-apoptotic factor for beta-cells by pleiotropic activation of tightly linked signaling pathways in beta-cells.

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R Vettor, C Macor, F Novo, C Gottardo, S Zovato, M Simoncini, G Federspil and D Armanini

Abnormalities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypersensitivity to corticosteroids have been suggested as major determinants of the development of visceral obesity. Since at the cellular level most effects of corticosteroids are mediated by specific receptors, we evaluated the number of type I and type II corticosteroid receptors in mononuclear leucocytes of 26 obese and 13 control subjects. We also studied the relationship between corticosteroid receptors, measured by radioreceptor assay, and abdominal visceral fat, evaluated by computed tomography scan, plasma and urine corticosteroid hormone concentrations and overall glucose metabolism, assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. We observed a decrease in type II receptors in the obese subjects (1746 +/- 160 vs 2829 +/- 201 per cell; P < 0.0001), with no change in type I receptors. Type II receptors decreased in relation to body mass index (r = -0.53; P < 0.005) and total glucose disposal (r = 0.51; P < 0.01). Abdominal visceral fat did not correlate with type II receptor number, but did correlate with total glucose disposal (r = -0.35; P < 0.05); the rate of glucose disposal was lower in obese subjects (3.3 +/- 0.3 vs 7.4 +/- 0.4 mg/kg per min; P < 0.001). Plasma and urine cortisol did not differ between the two groups. However, a direct correlation between type II receptor number and both plasma (r = 0.43; P < 0.02) and urine cortisol concentrations (r = 0.60; P < 0.05) was observed. In conclusion, the number of type II corticosteroid receptors in mononuclear leucocytes was found to be lower in obese subjects. This abnormality appears to be related to the degree of adiposity and to the main endocrine-metabolic features of the obesity syndrome, further supporting the hypothesis of involvement of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of obesity.

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J C Henquin, F Carton, L N Ongemba and D J Becker

Abstract

To exert their anti-diabetic effects in animals with overt alterations of glucose homeostasis, vanadium salts must be administered in high doses, which also cause decreases in food intake and body weight gain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of low doses of vanadate in rats made mildly diabetic (fed plasma glucose levels ∼11 mmol/l) and moderately hypoinsulinaemic by the injection of streptozotocin 4 days after birth. Vanadate was added to food and drinking water, at concentrations that led to the consumption of about 1 mg vanadium element per day (∼2·65 mg vanadium/kg per day in adult rats), i.e. three to fivefold less than in previous studies. The treatment was started at weaning and lasted 22 weeks (V rats), or was administered for 9 weeks only from the age of 3 months (C-V rats). Food intake and body weight gain were not affected in V rats and decreased by no more than 10% in C-V rats. In V rats, fasted and fed plasma glucose levels were decreased by about 0·5 and 2–3 mmol/l, respectively. The rises in glycaemia after three oral glucose tolerance tests were also clearly attenuated. These effects were not accompanied by any changes in plasma insulin levels. Pancreatic insulin reserves (decreased by two-thirds as compared with normal rats) were not affected by the treatment. A decrease in plasma glucose levels was also noted in C-V rats, and this improvement disappeared upon cessation of the treatment. In conclusion, oral vanadate improves glucose homeostasis in rats with moderate insulin deficiency and diabetes, even when the element is administered at low doses which have practically no repercussions on food intake and body weight gain. This indicates that vanadium salts have genuine beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in vivo.

Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 555–561

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AE Tsirka, EM Gruetzmacher, DE Kelley, VH Ritov, SU Devaskar and RH Lane

Uteroplacental insufficiency causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and subsequent low birth weight, which predisposes the affected newborn towards adult Syndrome X. Individuals with Syndrome X suffer increased morbidity from adult ischemic heart disease. Myocardial ischemia initiates a defensive increase in cardiac glucose metabolism, and individuals with Syndrome X demonstrate reduced insulin sensitivity and reduced glucose uptake. Glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 facilitate glucose uptake across cardiac plasma membranes, and hexokinase II (HKII) is the predominant hexokinase isoform in adult cardiac tissue. We therefore hypothesized that GLUT1, GLUT4 and HKII gene expression would be reduced in heart muscle of growth-retarded rats, and that reduced gene expression would result in reduced myocardial glucose uptake. To prove this hypothesis, we measured cardiac GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA and protein in control IUGR rat hearts at day 21 and at day 120 of life. HKII mRNA quantification and 2-deoxyglucose-uptake studies were performed in day-120 control and IUGR cardiac muscle. Both GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA and protein were significantly reduced at day 21 and at day 120 of life in IUGR hearts. HKII mRNA was also reduced at day 120. Similarly, both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake were significantly reduced in day-120 IUGR cardiac muscle. We conclude that adult rats showing IUGR as a result of uteroplacental insufficiency express significantly less cardiac GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA and protein than control animals (which underwent sham operations), and that this decrease in gene expression occurs in parallel with reduced myocardial glucose uptake. We speculate that this reduced GLUT gene expression and glucose uptake contribute towards mortality from ischemic heart disease seen in adults born with IUGR.

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TY Tai, JY Lu, CL Chen, MY Lai, PJ Chen, JH Kao, CZ Lee, HS Lee, LM Chuang and YM Jeng

This study aimed at elucidating the effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha on glucose metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infections. Twenty-eight biopsy-proven patients with chronic hepatitis B (ten cases) and hepatitis C (18 cases) were given IFN-alpha for a total of 24 weeks. The patients received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucagon stimulation test, tests for type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies and an insulin suppression test before and after IFN-alpha therapy. Ten of the 28 patients responded to IFN-alpha therapy. Steady-state plasma glucose of the insulin suppression test decreased significantly in responders (13.32+/-1.48 (S.E.M.) vs 11.33+/-1.19 mmol/l, P=0.0501) but not in non-responders (12.29+/-1.24 vs 11.11+/-0.99 mmol/l, P=0.2110) immediately after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. In the oral glucose tolerance test, no significant difference was observed in plasma glucose in either responders (10.17+/-0.23 vs 10.03+/-0.22 mmol/l) or non-responders (10.11+/-0.22 vs 9.97+/-0.21 mmol/l) 3 Months after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. However, significant differences were noted in C-peptide in both responders (2.90+/-0.13 vs 2.20+/-0.09 nmol/l, P=0.0040) and non-responders (2.45+/-0.11 vs 2.22+/-0.08 nmol/l, P=0.0287) before vs after treatment. The changes of C-peptide in an OGTT between responders and non-responders were also significantly different (P=0.0028), with responders reporting a greater reduction in C-peptide. No case developed autoantibodies during the treatment. In patients who were successfully treated with IFN-alpha, insulin sensitivity improved and their plasma glucose stayed at the same level without secreting as much insulin from islet beta-cells.

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A E Andreazzi, D X Scomparin, F P Mesquita, S L Balbo, C Gravena, J C De Oliveira, W Rinaldi, R M G Garcia, S Grassiolli and P C F Mathias

Swimming exercises by weaning pups inhibited hypothalamic obesity onset and recovered sympathoadrenal axis activity, but this was not observed when exercise training was applied to young adult mice. However, the mechanisms producing this improved metabolism are still not fully understood. Low-intensity swimming training started at an early age and was undertaken to observe glycemic control in hypothalamic–obese mice produced by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG). Whereas MSG and control mice swam for 15 min/day, 3 days a week, from the weaning stage up to 90 days old, sedentary MSG and normal mice did not exercise at all. After 14 h of fasting, animals were killed at 90 days of age. Perigonadal fat accumulation was measured to estimate obesity. Fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations were also measured. Fresh isolated pancreatic islets were used to test glucose-induced insulin release and total catecholamine from the adrenal glands was measured. Mice were also submitted to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. MSG-obese mice showed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Severe reduction of adrenal catecholamines content has also been reported. Besides, the inhibition of fat tissue accretion, exercise caused normalization of insulin blood levels and glycemic control. The pancreatic islets of obese mice, with impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, were recovered after swimming exercises. Adrenal catecholamine content was increased by swimming. Results show that attenuation of MSG-hypothalamic obesity onset is caused, at least in part, by modulation of sympathoadrenal axis activity imposed by early exercise, which may be associated with subsequent glucose metabolism improvement.